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newed rage, and, notwithstanding their own, and the national assistants' remonstrances, the traffic in rum and other distill. ed liquors, ruinous in a high degree to the morals of the Indians, was declared to be lawful. The brethren and the Christian Indians regarded this as an intimation from the Lord, that they should no longer reside there, and began to build boats for their departure. But while they were thus engaged, a Seneca chief, with two others, came to Goshgoshûnk, and forbid the missionary, in the most positive terms, by a black string of wampum, (which always has an evil signification) to decamp, till he should receive further injunctions from Onondago. But Zeisberger awarded this unreasonable demand with great frankness, and boldly declared that the Christian Indians would not suffer themselves to be detained at Goshgoshûnk, but would remove to the other side of the Ohio. This accordingly, took place soon after.
The brethren there selected a suitable though drcary spot, where they built a town in which they might preach the gospel unmolested, and live secluded, with the believing Indians and others who would forsake paganism. Their testimony concerning Jesus, proved effectual in this place, but as for the necessaries of life, the inhabitants of Lawunakhannek (the name of the place,) had for a time to labour under the most trying difficulties. They lived yct in expectation of reaping their first crop from their new plantation, and their old corn was alinost unfit for use. At last this also failed them, and not even for money could they purchase any in the surrounding country. The brethren Zeisberger and Senseman, therefore, went with several Indians to Pittsburg, and were fortunate cnough to procure a supply there. Here it was that Zeisberger had an opportunity of rendering an important service to the whole country, by advising the British government at Pittsburg to appoint an agent for the Indians, who should heai their complaints against the white people, see the grievances of the latter against the Indians redressed, and have all differences amicably adjusted. This advice was thankfully accepted at Pittsburg; government acted up to it, and it had the desired effect. On his way home, Zeisberger made it his business to admonish the inhabitants of the different Indian villages to maintain the peace; and God blessed his endeavours in such a manner, that the principal chiefs of these towns sent delegates to Pittsburg, who manifested their good intentions to the English government.
In 1770 the Indian congregation were so much harassed at their new place, by the frequent visits of warriors, that they were compelled to resolve upon another pilgrimage. They sailed up the Ohio past Pittsburg to the mouth of Beaver Creek, which empties into the former, and after a perilous voyage, of a fortnight's duration, they reached a spot apparently chosen for their purpose. The town which they laid out there was called Frie. denstadt.
In 1771 Zeisberger was called to Bethlehem, that he might have an interview with the brethren, Christian Gregor and John Loretz, who had been deputed from Europe by the Directors of the Brethren's Unity, on a visitation to the society's congregations in North America, in order to confer with them on the existing state of the mission, and to take their advice about various
At that time there were three missionary stations among the Indians; two of them, however, were exposed to disturbances from the white people, and the third, where Zeisberger laboured, to the baneful influence of the savages. These circumstances occasioned a removal of all the Indian congregations from the different places where they had hitherto resided, to the river Muskingum, whither they had been invited to come by the chiefs living thereabout. Accordingly, in the spring of 1772, Zeisberger began the building of Schönbrunn, on the Muskingum, with several Indian families. He exerted himself to such a degree, while labouring at this wild uncultivated spot, that he felt very much indisposed for a considerable time, the more so from having suffered already many hardships on the journey thither. On his recovery he paid a visit to the Shawanese in those parts, and it seemed as though the preaching of the gospel would take effect with 'numbers of them. He therefore repeated the visit in the year following; but at this time their ears were not open to the message.
During the great revival which took place in 1774 at Schônbrunn, as well as at Gnadenhûtten, the second missionary es. tablishment on the Muskingum, our late brother was fully engaged. His heart leaped for joy when he was an eye witness to the powerful effect which the word preached by himself and his fellow-labourers had upon the hearts of the hearers. No strange Indian came into the town (and almost daily one or more were there on a visit,) but heard the gospel ; numbers did not as much as leave the place again, but immediately asked permission to remain : spark had fallen into the hearts of others, which afterwards brought them thither likewise. These happy times he ever after had in grateful remembrance. When, in later years he would grieve about the state of the Indian congregation, it was still his comfort that our Saviour might, in his own due time, cause a fresh revival to take place, and he trusted also that such a thing would happen. During the period of this gracious visitation, he was diligent in translating a number of hymns from the brethrens' hymn book, revised those, in part, that had been translated, and besides composed a school book for children.
At the building of Lichtenau, the third missionary establishment on thc Muskingum, in 1776, which was chiefly undertaken at the desire of Netawalwecs, a Delaware chief, he was likewise busily engaged, and our Saviour did not sufler his expectations of secing another revival among the Indians at this place, to be
frustrated. In the same year, however, the Indian congregation was involved in very critical circumstances, during the progress of the revolutionary war, in which most of the Indian nations took an active part. A melancholy schism arose at Schönbrunn, which induced the faithful part of the congregation to move from thence to Gnadenhûtten and Lichtenau. The year following the prospects wore a still more dismal aspect-the total subversion of the missionary cause appeared unavoidable; but none could decide which was most to be dreaded, the white people or the savage Indians. mosco
When, in April 1778, (says brother Heckwelder,) after a considerable lapse of time, I saw brother Zeisberger again at Lichtenau, it immediately struck me that he must be in great trouble ; indeed his bodily constitution appeared quite worn out with grief and care. About this
About this time a large seal. ed letter had been handed to him by a Wyondat Indian, signed by the governor of Detroit. It contained a positive injunction, with formidable threats annexed to it, to wit: “The teachers of the Christian Indians shall, without delay, go on an expedi. tion with us against the rebels on the other side of the Ohio, kill them and deliver up their scalps." The menace sounded just as terrible as the order itself. “There we have their seal and signature for it,” said brother Zeisberger, " that they are determined to destroy the mission, and whenever I think of it I feel as though I should die." The injunction was left unheeded, and the threat was never executed; but still we lived in great anxiety, and the indications were plain, that the British, several times, contemplated the suspension or the death of the missionaries.
In 1779 he removed, with a part of the congregation, which for a time had lived together at Lichtenau, into the neighbourhood of Schônbrunn, where a new town was built. Acting at the same time the part of an overseer and that of a workman, ne undertook the task with delight, and never was he heard to complain of having too much work to do. At the same time the inhabitants of Gnadenhûtten returned again, and an agreeable intercourse was kept up between the three stations. Zeisberger being once on the poini of returning from Lichtenau, whither he had been on a visit, to Schönbrunn, a faithful friend from Sandusky brought him the intelligence that a party of murderers had been deputed by the governor of Detroit, and were already in the vicinity, being commissioned to take the missionary either alive or bring away his scalp. They therefore tried all in their power to prevail on him to stay at Lichtenau—the more so, as he had but one Indian to accompany him. But he calmly replied, “My destiny is in the hand of God; how often already has Satan altempted to cast me down; but he is not permitted to effect his purpose. I go!" Seeing him so resolute, they determined that a safeguard of valiant Indians, at least, should accompany him; but as these could not get themselves in readiness so soon, because their horses were not near at hand, he took leave of the brethren and rode off. God, however, permitted him to go by a wrong path, without his being aware of it. When the four brethren, who had started an hour later than he did, came to the place where the road turned off, they saw brother Zeisberger, who in the mean time had discovered his mistake, riding back, and thus they providentially met together. Had he taken the right road, it would have been impossible for these brethren to overtake him before he met the hostile party; for the latter met them when they were only about 10 miles from Lichtenau. Just about this juncture, the friendly Delawares, brave men, who were out upon the chase, joined Zeisberger's company, and immediately had recourse to their arms, in order to act upon the defensive, provided they were attacked. This, however, was unnecessary; for the enemy finding them on their guard sheered off.
In the spring of 1781, brother Zeisberger was called to Bethlebem, and there joined in holy matrimony to Susan Lekron, a • single sister from Litiz. It was not long after his return to the Muskingum with his wife, that black clouds gathered over the heads of the Indian congregation and the missionaries. The half-king of the Hurons had undertaken the charge imposed upon hiin by the British government at Detroit to suspend both. On the morning of the 3d of September, a national assistant entered the mission house at Gnadenhûtten, where the brethren, Zeisberger, Edwards, Senseman, and Heckwelder were assembled, and with tears in his eyes, brought the intelligence, that they would be attacked that same day by the savages; but that the latter were not yet agreed among themselves, whether they would lead them away captive, or murder and scalp them. This intelligence had been conveyed to the national assistant by one of his relations, who had sat in their council and was a friend to the brethren. The missionaries, notwithstanding, had the bell tolled at the usual hour in the morning, to assemble the Indians for divine service; and as a great number of warriors came along with the Christian Indians, the spacious hall was not only crowded with people, but many stood outside of the doors. Several verses having been sung, brother Zeisberger read the text appointed for the day—“In a little wrath I hid my face from thee for a moment; but with everlasting kindness I will have mercy on thee, saith the Lord thy Redeemer.” Isa. liv. 8. From these words he spoke with such power and undauntedness, that nearly all those present, and even many of the warriors, melted into tears. All those members of the congregation who were faithfully disposed, were on this occasion united together in one spirit, and took up the resolution, willingly and patiently to submit to every thing that God should suffer to befall them; others, how.
'ever, whose conversation was not sincere, were brought to consider their state, and at least to be ashamed of their double-mindedness. But another matter of the greatest importance, the prevention of a terrible slaughter, was, by the mercy of God, the blessed consequence of this memorable meeting. We knew that many of our Indian brethren would not remain indifferent spectators to the scene, if their teachers were assaulted and abused; and it was likewise known that many of the warriors loved us, and would, in connexion with their relations among the believing Indians, fight for us. For this reason the war-council, who were apprized of this, had devised ways and means for assassinating us. Now brother Zeisberger had publicly, and in the name of all the missionaries, declared that we would willingly, and without murmuring, submit to the continued care of God's providence; yea, that we would, as was the duty of every believer, pray for our enemies, and for all the warriors that had encamped around us; and this he had done himself, at the conclusion of his discourse. This tended to quiet the minds of our Indian brethren and sisters respecting us; and the warriors who had attended the meeting could now give information to the council, that they would meet with no resistance here. This also was the reason why but three or four Indians laid hands on us, notwithstanding above 300 warriors were on the spot, and even they, contrary to their custom, in such cases, treated us with comparative lenity: At noon of said day, the brethren, Zeisberger, Senseman, and Heckwelder, standing together, a captain of the Monseys came running up to them and asked the former, whether he alone would acknowledge himself as belonging to the nation of the Monseys, (a Delaware tribe) and as their only teacher ? Scarcely had the answer been given, “Where one stays there we all stay,” when we three were seized and led into the camp of the Hurons. While we were dragged along, a Huron gallopped up to us with great impetuosity, and aimed his javelin at brother Senseman, but missed him. A wicked Monsey took us one after the other by the hair, shook our heads soundly, and every time repeated these words—“Guamangomel nimat," i. e. “I salute thee, brother!" The common salutation of the brethren was well known to this arch enemy of their's and reviler of the gospel; and we now being in his power, he vented his indignation against us in this manner. Through the mercy of God, another danger was averted from us when we arrived in our transport for Sandusky at Salem, the Christian Indian town that had been last laid out on the Muskingum. The young Indians there could not remain passive spectators of the captivity of their teachers. They accordingly conferred together in the night, and unanimously resolved to effect our enlargement, let what would be the consequence. Fortunately there was one among their number, whose reflection led him farther than the rest, who insisted upon their