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disten to his eloquence, the solemn stillness and intense feeling which uniformly pervaded his audience, all bear testimony to his talents, which cannot be mistaken.

Mr. Larned's Christian and ministerial character was strongly marked by an affectionate and persevering zeal in the cause of nis Master. The superior energies of his mind, the uncommon ardour of his feelings, and his native resolution and perseverance, were all brought into the service of religion. His success in meeting the obstacles which existed to the erection of his church, is a good proof of his uncommon address, and of the energy of his resolution. His public performances, and particularly his prayers, seemed to be the effusion of a soul that was enwrapped in the service, and panting for the glory of Christ. We remember more than once to have heard him, when unexpectedly called to make an occasional prayer, address the throne of grace with a pertinence, solemnity and majesty, which has melted and overwhelmed the congregation. His extemporaneous powers, we believe, have rarely been equalled. We have seen him rise on the impulse of the moment to speak on a subject of importance, and as he became warm with his subject, carry an assembly composed of his daily associates, wherever he pleased.

It would gratify our feelings, if it would not protract this arlicle too far, to dwell on many other traits of Mr. L.'s character, and particularly to embody some of our recollections of what he was in the more retired walks of private and social life. We shall never forget the vivacity that kindled in his eye, the smile of cheerfulness and affection that played over his countenance, the cordial and grateful welcome with which he always met his friends, and the sprightliness and brilliancy which shed a charm over his conversation. When we think of the uncommon qualities which he possessed, and the rank to which he had already risen in public opinion, we are to remember that the day on which his death occurred, only completed his 24th year. Had he lived -but we dare not trust ourselves to think of what he might have been, or how much he might have done, lest it should lead us to indulge sentiments of complaint against the righteous Providence of God. Though we cannot but consider his death as one of the most unpropitious events to the church which have for a long time occurred, it should not abate our confidence in Him who we know orders all things well, even when we cannot discern the kindness of his dispensations. But his death should be improved, and especially by those of us who are engaged in the same sacred employment which he has left, to check the ardour of our attachment to the world, to make us more diligent in our holy calling, and more desirous to finish our course with joy. The church may indeed rock amidst the billows of adversity, the tempests may beat around her, and seem to threaten her final destruction, but she has nothing to fear. Though our brightest

hopes of her prosperity may prematurely set in disappointment and gloom ; though her ministers, to whom our weakness and shortsightedness had assigned an illustrious part, may be taken away while they are yet entering on their career, the God who controls her destinies, will cause light to shine out of darkness. The church then is safe, notwithstanding these dark dispensations; but it cannot be safe for us to neglect to improve them. Larned is gone, as we confidently believe, lo join the assembly of the just : while he lives in our fond and affectionate recollections, let us remember that the best tribule which we can pay to his memory, is to be attracted by the lustre of his example, to a more faithful discharge of our duty.

NEW-YORK INSTITUTION FOR THE INSTRUCTION OF THE DEAF AND

DUMB. Rev. Dr. Milledoler's Address. * Privation of the faculties of hearing and of speech, must certainly be classed among the greatest calamities of our nature.

Privation of the faculty of hearing, is styled deafness.-Dumbness, as the term is generally used, arises not so much from any natural imperfection of the organs of speech, as from deafness. The Dumb are incapable of using language, the sounds of which they have never been able to hear, and consequently have never been able to imitate.

To inquire into the nature of these defects, and the means of their relief, belongs to the department of the physiologist. We shall contine our remarks to persons who were either born under these disadvantages, or have suffered under them from the morning of life : cases so hopeless in their nature, that remedies have never been applied, or being applied, have baflled the resources of the healing art.

The number of our race born deaf and dumb, or early deprived of the faculties of hearing and of utterance, is much greater than is generally supposed. This fact has been well ascertained, by founding schools of instruction for their relief.

That their situation is distressing, and in some respects appal. ling, is unquestionable. When we consider, that they are cut 011 from their infancy from some of the principal endearments of filial and social life; that they are constantly viewed, even by their

* The first public examination of the pupils of this Institution took place in St. George's Chapel, on the 19th of January last. Before the examination commenced, the Rev. Dr. Milledoler, at the request of the Board of Directors, ascended the pula pit, and delivered an interesting and appropriate Address to the numerous assemblage of our citizens convened on the occasion. At a subsequent meeting of the Board, a copy of the Address was requested for publication ; but circumstances, unnecessary to be detailed, occurred, to detaiu it from the press. In compliance with our solicita. tion, the author has, at length, obligingly furnished us with the manuscript, and we have now the pleasure to present it to the readers of the American Missionary Ro gister.

EL M. Reg

nearest and dearest relatives, as objects of commiseration; that in many instances, they are kept out of sight, and secluded from almost all the enjoyments of youth of their own age and sex ; that they are excluded from all that cultivation of intelleci, which gives expansion to genius, and energy 10 mind, together with all the delight connected with intellectual research and improvement; that their minds, in a state of vacuity but little removed from idiotism, are, like a deserted house, left to decay and ruin, or a deserted field, abandoned to the briars of the wilderness : but, more especially, when we consider, that they are in a great measure destitute of the means of knowing God-themselves--their duty --and the results of its performance or neglect, we shall easily perceive that they labour under no common calamity, and that their situation is indeed such as to claim our tenderest sympathy, and to excite in their behalf our most active and energetic exertions.

The two great inlets of human knowledge are sight and hearing; of these, the loss of sight has generally been considered as the greatest deprivation. But when we consider, that early defect of hearing involves the loss of language, which is the principal medium of mental intercourse, we shall easily perceive that it presents by far the most formidable barrier to intellectual improvement.

As an opinion prevailed among the ancients, that the Deaf and Dumb were necessarily excluded from the Temple of Science, they were abandoned to a state of mental destitution, for which it was believed that no remedy was discoverable. Hence those lines of Lucretius.

“ T' instruct the deaf no art could ever reach,

No care improve them, and no wisdom teach."* That this opinion is erroneous, is now proved by indubitable experience.

The instruction of the Deaf and Dumb began to attract the attention of the learned in Spain, in Germany, in Holland, and in England, about the close of the 16th and beginning of the 17th century. Attempts to relieve these unfortunate beings were made by the Spaniards Ponce and Bonnet ; by Helmont a German; by the Swiss physician Amman, settled in Holland; and by the celebrated Dr. Wallis of England.

Several learned dissertations were written to show the practicability of instructing the Deaf and Dumb, followed by experiments, which fully proved that the views of these benevolent and philosophic men, were no visionary speculations. In more recent times, this art has been successfully cultivated by Father Vannin and Monsieur Perreize in Paris, by Mr. Heinich in Leip

* " Nec ratione ulla docere, suadereque surdis Quid facta esset opus.” LUCRET.

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sic, by Mr. Baker in London, by Mr. Braidwood in Edinburgh, by the Abbeès de L’pèe and Sicard in Paris, and by Mr. Watson, formerly the assistant of Mr. Braidwood, and now teacher in the asylum for the support and education of Deaf and Dumb children of the poor, instituted in London in the year 1792. In that institution, which has been crowned with considerable success, the children are taught to write, and to speak articulately; and to understand what they write and speak. To fit them for the management of common concerns, they are instructed in penmanship, and practical arithmetic; and to enable them to earn a livelihood, they are also instructed in some of the most useful of the mechanic arts.

In prosecuting their ingenious, yet arduous labours, the instructers of the Deaf and Dumb have had two objects in view. First, by teaching their pupils the use of written language, they have endeavoured to enlighten their minds, and to enable them by these and other symbols, natural and artificial, to hold converse with others.

Their second object was to instruct them in the actual exercise of the organs of articulation, or to converse by speaking. This last object has been attended with such serious difficulties, that it has, in some instances, been abandoned; but as some of the subjects of instruction discover a much greater aptitude than others, to express articulate sounds, where such aptitude is found, it may and ought to be encouraged.

The first object, however, namely, that of teaching by letters and by signs, is of vital importance.

As language is an arbitrary thing; and as there is no natural connexion between articulate sounds and the ideas they are employed to express—and as all language is taught, in the first instance, by sensible signs, it follows, that although the Deaf and Dumb cannot be instructed by audible sounds, yet that by the use of written characters, accompanied by sensible signs, they may not only be introduced into the fields of literature, but may make astonishing advances in almost every branch of science. Dr. Johnson has styled the instruction of the Deaf and Dumb a philosophical curiosity; that curiosity has since, however, been very much simplified, and schools for their relief are now in the full tide of successful experiment.

Prompted by the writings and success of European philanthropists, two institutions have recently been organized in this country to meliorate the situation of our Deaf and Dumb. The first founded at Hartford, in Connecticut, was incorporated by an act of the legislature of that State, in May 1816. The second, founded in the city of New York, was incorporated in April 1817. Whilst we detract nothing from the solid worth of our sister institution, we must be pernitted to say, that ours is emphatically the Asylum of the Poor.

Children received into this school have not only the advantage of the mental culture and moral inspection of their able and faithful preceptors, but are also literally clothed and fed, and so led forward to usefulness and honour, not only without condition, but in many instances without the most distant hope of remuneration on the part of the Directors.

This institution is yet in its cradle. What is to become of it, time and heaven will unfold. Public munificence has done something in its favour, and will probably do more. By private munificence it has been exceedingly encouraged. Its benefactors have done well—they have done honour to themselves they have done honour to human nature. This asylum now rests, almost as much as ever it did, upon their fostering care.

Embarked in this Godlike work, the Directors can neither abandon it, nor persevere without means.

Prudence has already suggested, that the doors of the Institution be closed against future applications, till our prospects shall brighten. Her voice has been heard. In more than one instance it has also been obeyed; and it must be obeyed, till some favourable change in our affairs shall call these suffering exiles from retirement. The strongest motives, fellow-citizens, that can be presented to enlightened minds, combine, with resistless force, to recommend to your care these children of affliction.

The tremendous disadvantages under which they labour, we have endeavoured to reveal. From evils so great, so complicated, so overwhelming, it is our object to rescue them, and not only to rescue them from positive evils, but to make them partakers of positive good, as rich as it is extensive. The instruction they receive in this Institution has an almost miraculous influence upon their temporal happiness and usefulness.-On entering this school, there is an immediate call for mental exertion. The dormant powers of the mind are aroused to action. That action is new, delightful, and salutary. They are excited, they are entertained, and they are instructed. The ennui of idleness, 'unsocial habits, and marked dejection, are exchanged for the sprightliness of industry, the charms of society, and the pleasures of hope.

If to be drawn from obscurity and noticed with affection-if to be introduced by the knowledge of letters into a new world, where there is endless varicty to instruct, and endless delight in improvement--if to be conscious of that improvement in our own case, to become objects of interest and endearment to others, and to have the power and disposition of doing good almost infinitely enlarged ;-in a word, if io become every way more respectable and useful, can add to the happiness of a rational and immortal being-then the Deaf and Dumb are more happy by their improvement, for objects around them are like a new creation, and

Vol. 111,

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