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deliberate opinion, that, if that law pass, our country will be RU-ined: : yes, ru-ined for-Ev-er."



Words used in counting or numbering, and, indeed, all others, when repeated in a list, or as a set of examples, are emphatick.


1. The Cardinal Numbers; as, One, two, three, four, five, twenty, one-hundred, one-thousand, eight-hundred, and thirtyfive, and so on.

2. The Ordinal Numbers : First, second, third, and so forth. 3. Adverbs of Number : Once, twice, thrice. 4. Adverbs of Order : First, secondly, thirdly, lastly. 5. Adverbs of Time : Now, already, before, hereafter, not yet. 6. List of Prepositions : Of, to, for, by, with, in.

7. Descartes, Stahl, Cabanis, and Bichat, Cuvier, Blumenbach, Reil, and some others, admit of sensibility without consciousness.

Remarks.—By pronouncing the words in the foregoing examples, slowly and very distinctly, the reader will perceive that each requires a degree of percussive force, amounting to what is termed emphasis.

Emphasis of Enumeration is likewise legitimately employed in the following, and similar


If one man can do much good, if two men can do more, and if three can go far beyond two, what may we not expect threehundred thousand to accomplish.

In this work, I shall treat of the functions of man as divided, first, into vegetative, secondly, affective, and thirdly, intellectual.

In the first chapter, I shall speak of sensibility; in the second, of the relation between the affective and intellectual manifestations of the mind; in the third, of the dependance of the affective and intellectual faculties on the brain; in the fourth, of the plurality of the organs; and in the fifth and last chapter, of the intellectual faculties and their organs.

Part first, chapter fourth, section eighth, page twenty-ninth. Remarks.—In these examples, the emphatick force which

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"“ two men,


falls upon "much, more, beyond," "vegetative, affective, intel-
lectuai," "sensibility, relation, dependance, plurality, intellect-
ual faculties, organs,” and so forth, (though the words are not
marked as emphatick,) may be styled emphasis of specification,
according to Rule 2; and it would not be improper so to style
the emphasis placed upon the marked words," one, two, three,"
first, secondly," "second, third, fifth, last," " fourth, eighth,
twenty-ninth," and so forth; but it is more precise and systemat-
ick to denominate the emphatick force given to these last-men-
tioned words, emphasis of enumeration, according to Rule 3.

Again, though not so simple and easy, yet it would be
neither impossible nor improper to explain the emphasis on
all these words, according to Rule 1, as antithetick: thus, we
might consider “two men” as forming a contrast with "
man,” three men,” with “two,” and so on.
When we say,

One man can do much ;" “ Two can do more;”. “ In the first chapter;" and so forth, in the first place, the words one and two specify how many are alluded to, and first, specifies which chapter: hence, here is emphasis of specification : and secondly, the phrases, one man,' "the first chapter," and so forth, by specifying the particular number of men, and the ordinal rank of the chapter, contradistinguish that number from any other number of men that might be supposed or mentioned, and that chapter from any other chapter, and thus indirectly form an antithesis between the number expressed, and an imaginary number understood.

“This section is found in chapter fourth, page two-hundred and eighty-fifth;" that is, “It is not found in chapter first, second, third, or any other chapter, but in chapter fourth ; and on page two-hundred and eighty-fifth, and not on page ninetieth, one-hundredth, two-hundredth, or any other page that you might imagine."

" In the first chapter, I shall speak of sensibility; and not of consciousness, irritability, or any other property of organick or animal nature.”

Illustrations of this kind, might be extended; but it is believed that the good sense of the reader will render farther remarks, under this head, unnecessary.

For examples of emphasis of specification, the learner is referred to the words, friend, ambitious, honourable; captives, crown, refuse, know, love, cause, and mourn," " parchment, will, tears, mantle, FELL, mutiny," and so forth, on pages 316 and 317; and, also, to the words, “child, husband, friend, lover, look, word, and action," on page 179. For examples of anti

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thetick emphasis, to pages 180, 205, 297, 298, 299, 300, 316, 317, and to almost any other pages in the second part of this Mork.

II. Emphasis is sometimes divided into Simple and Compound.


When the emphatick force falls on only one word in a phrase, it is sometimes called Simple Emphasis ; but when it falls on more than one word in succession, it is denominated Compound Emphasis.

EXAMPLESof Simple Emphasis.
It is as natural to die, as to be born: to an infant, perhaps
the one is as painful as the oth-er.
Let an-oth-er man praise thee, and not thy own mouth.
O that those lips had lan-guage [as well as ex-pres-sion.)

Their vines a shadow to their race shall yield,
And the same hand that sow'-d, shall reap, the field.

EXAMPLES—of Compound Emphasis. Napoleon would have en-slave-d the land to make the ocean free ; and he wanted only pow-er to enslave both.

It is easier to forgive the weak, who have injured us, than the pow-erful, whom we have injured.

Ped-antry prides herself on being wrong by rules; while com-mon sense is contented to be right with-out them.

The contem-pla-tion of death as the wa-ges of sin, is ho-ly and re-lig-ious; but the fear of it as a trib-ute due to na-ture, is weak.

In proportion as the ancestors of the profligate are distinguished for their virtues, are the latter disgraced by their vices.

O death! the good man's dearest friend ; [but the bad man's greatest en-emy.)

ni fares the land, to hast’-ning ills a prey,
Where wealth ac-cu-mulates, and men de-cay.
Prin-ces and lords may flour-ish, or may fade ;
A breath can make them, as a breath has made
But a bold peas-antry, their country's pride,
When once de-stroy'-d, can nev-er be sup-pli-d.

It has been mentioned, that emphasis, considered in reference to the different words on which it falls, admits of various degrees of percussive force, as well as of various qualities in regard to inflection and intonation. This difference in emphatick force, which, according to their meaning and rhetorical relations, is demanded by the various, emphatick words of a sentence or discourse, has induced some writers to adopt another division of emphasis

, distinguished by the terms Superiour and Inferiour. This division of the subject, however, like that of Simple and Compound, can by no means be regarded as remarkable for precision or scientifick accuracy; but, as it is considered by many who have not leisure for scientifick research and philosophical accuracy, as a convenient distinction, answering all ordinary, practical purposes, it may be proper to notice it.


The term SUPERIOUR EMPHASIS is applied to that stronger percussion of the voice which is given to some emphatick words than to others, in order to distinguish it from that less forcible stress which those others take, and which is thence called the INFERIOUR EMPHASIS.


I am tor-tured even to MAD-ness, when I THINK Of the proud vic-tor. In reading this passage, which occurs in Addison's Cato, as the language in which Marcus expresses his indignation at the conduct of Cesar, the superiour emphasis falls on "think,” which word is contrasted with the implied word hear or discourse : thus, “I am tor-tured even to MAD-ness, not only when I hear or dis-course of Cesar, but even when I THINK of him.” A little attention to the passage, will also show, that the word “madness” requires no very slight degree of percussive force, although a stress inferiour to that given to “think;" and, likewise, that “tortured," "proud,” and “victor,” require each a degree of force still slighter than that laid upon “madness,” but stronger than that which is given to the other words of the sentence.

Various degrees of emphatick force are also requisite in pronouncing the following sentences, in which the different degrees are imperfectly shown by the various sizes of type employed

Justice is LAME, as well as blind, among us.

Tem-perance, by for-tifying the mind and body, leads to HAP-piness: in-temperance, by e-ner-vating them, generally

ends in Mis-ery.

Hamlet.-Saw WHOM ?
Horatio.- My lord, the king, your fa-ther.
Hamlet.—The KING, my FA-ther?
Cassius.- I denied you not.
Brutus.—You DID.
Cassius.—I did not: he was but a fool

That brought my an-swer back. STRIKE, as thou didst at CE-sar! for I know, When thou didst hate him worst, thou lov-dst him BET-ter Than ever thou lov-dst Cas-sius. The distinctive powers and qualities of the voice, described on pages 107, and 108, under the heads of Radical, Vanishing, Compound, and Median Stress, Dr. Rush has analyzed and explained, as applicable in expressing the various degrees and kinds of emphasis. The reader is therefore requested to turn again to those pages, and attentively examine the analysis there given, before he proceeds to a perusal of the following, scientifick division of this subject


This brief specimen is chiefly taken from Dr. Barber's Elocution.

Emphasis of Radical Stress.
Escamples.- Back to thy pun-ishment,

False fu-gitive, and to thy speed add wings.
Whence and what art thou, ex-ecrable shape ?

Emphasis of Median Stress. Examples.I warn you, do not dare to lay your hand on the constitution.

Oh, swear not by the moon, the inconstant moon,
That monthly chan-ges in her circled orb.

Emphasis of Vanishing Stress.
Examples.- Cassius.—I an itching palm ?

Brutus.—The name of Cassius honours this corruption,

And chastisement doth therefore hide its head. Cassius.--Chas-tisement !

Emphasis of Compound Stress. Example.- Arm, warriours, arm for fight.

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