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cer of great merit, whom I beg leave strongly to recommend to the rrotice of the government. I have the honour to be, &c.
U.S. ship Guerriere, Bay of Tunis, July 31, 1815, SIR,
I have the honour to inform you, that upon my arrival at the anchorage, I was made acquainted with the following transactions, which had taken place here during our late war with Great Britain. Two prizes, which had been taken by the Abaellino privateer, and sent into this port, were taken possession of by a Brilish vessel of war while lying within the protection of the bey of Tunis. The consul having communicated to me information of this violation of our treaty with Tunis, I demanded satisfaction of the bey. After some hesitation, and purposing a delay of payment for one year, my demand was acceded to, and the money, amounting to fifty-six thousand dollars, paid into the bands of the consul, Mr. Noah, agent for the privateer.
Of the papers which I have the honour to transmit herewith, No. 1 is a copy of the consul's letter to me.- No. 2, is a copy of my letter to the prime minister of the bey;~ and No. 3, is a copy of the consul's acknowledgment of the receipt of the money.
I shall proceed immediately to Tripoli, and will give you early information of the further proceedings of this squadron. The bey of Tunis has now lying in this harbour, nearly ready for sea, three frigates, and several smaller vessels of war. I have the honour to be, &c.
U.S. ship Guerriere, Bay of Tripoli, August 31, 1815. SIR,
I have the honour to inform you that immeiliately after the date of my last communication I proceeded to Tripoli. Upon my arrival off that place I received from our consul a letter, a copy of which (No. 1,) is here with transmitted In consequence of the information contained in this letter, I deemed it ne. cessary to demand justice from the bashaw. The encloser (No. 2,) is a copy of my note to the prime minister of Tripoli. On the next day the governor of the city of Tripoli came on board the Guerriere to treat in beha:f of the bashaw. He objected to the amount claimed by us, but finally agreed to our demands. The money, amounting to the sum of twenty five thousand dollars, has been paid into the hands of the consul, who is agent for the privateer. The bashaw also de. livered up to me ten captives, two of them Danes, and the others Neapolitans. I have the honour to enclose the letter of the consul informing me of the conclusion of this affair.
During the progress of our negotiations with the states of Barbary, now brought to a conclusion, there has appeared a disposition on the part of each of them, to grant as far as we were in a situation to demand. Any attempt to conciliate them, except through the influence of their fears, I should expect to be vain. It is only by the display of a naval foroe that their depredations can be restrained I trust that the successful result of our small expedition, so honourable to our country, will induce other nations to follow the example, in which case the Barbary states will be compelled to abandon their piratical system.
I shall now proceed with the squadron to Carthagena, at which place I hope to find the relief squadron from America. I have the lionour to be, &c.
U.S. ship Guerriere, New York. I have the honour to inform you of my arrival, in the Guerriere, at this port to-day. We left Gibraltar on the 7th ult.' Thirty-six hours preceding, commodore Bainbridge, having in company the Macedonian, Congress, and all the
smaller vessels, sailed for America. On our passage home we passed the squadron in longitude thirty-two degrees. The frigates United States and ConstellaLion, sloops Erie and Ontario remain in the Mediterranean.
Captain Downes, late of this ship, has been appointed to the Ontario. Captain Elliott returns as a passenger in the lacedonian Lieutenant G. W. Rodgers joined this ship as captain, and I beg leave to draw the attention of the department to this indefatigable and meritorious officer. I have the honour to be, &c.
LETTERS REFERRED TO IN THE FOREGOING CORRESPONDENCE.
To his excellency, the prime minister to the bey of Tunis. SIR,
I have the honour to enclose to your excellency a despatch from the department of state of the United States of America, by which you will perceive the friendly disposition of my government towards the bey and regency of Tunis. When that despatch was written, it was believed that a disposition equally friend. ly existed on the part of Tunis. With surprise, I understood on my arrival in the Mediterranean, that the treaty existing between the two countries had been violated on the part of Tunis. First, by permitting two vessels which had been captured by an American vessel, to be taken out of the bay of Tunis by a Bri. tish cruiser; and secondly, by sanctioning the conduct of a company of Jew mer. ehants, subjects of Tunis, in taking the property of an American citizen at their own price, and much below its real value.
In consequence of this information, as soon as I had obtained justice from Algiers for her aggressions, I hastened to this port with the power and the disposie tion to exact from the regency an observance of our treaty. I now require an immediate restitution of the property, or of its value. Your excellency will perceive the necessity of the earliest attention to this communication, and of making known to me the decision of his excellency the bey, with the least possible delay.
I have the honour to be, &c.
S. DeCATUR, &c. &c.
To his excellency, the prime minister of Tripoli.
U.S. ship Guerriere, of Tripoli, August 6, 1815. SIR,
I have been officially informed that the bashaw of Tripoli has permitted a British sloop of war, pending hustilities between the United States and that nation, to take from out his harbour, and from under the guvo of his castle, two American prizes, in direct violation of the treaty subsisting between the two na. tions. As soon as I had settled with Algiers for her aggressions, and with 'Tu. nis for a similar outrage, with that now complained of, I hastened to this place with a part of the squadron under my command.
With ample power to take satisfaction for the violation of our treaty above stated, I only follow the invariable rule of my government in first inaking a demand of justice. I have therefore to inform your excellency, that I require im. mediate restitution to be made, of the full value of the vessels taken from the harbour of Tripoli, as before stated, as also compensation for the loss sustained by the detention of the American cruiser, in violation of the treaty.
Your excellency will perceive the necessity of making known to me the de. termination of his excellency the bashaw, in relation to these demands, with the least possible delay. I have the honour to be, &c.
S. DECÁTUR, &c. &c.
BIOGRAPHICAL NOTICE OF
CAPTAIN CHARLES STEWART.
Captain Charles Stewart, was born in Philadelphia, on the 22d of July, 1778. Both his parents were natives of Ireland. His father came to America at an early age, and followed the business of a mariner in the merchants' service. He commanded several ships from the ports of Philadelphia and New York, and was much esteemed for his probity and professional character. He died about two years after the birth of Charles, the care of whose education devolved upon his surviving parent.
Charles having been instructed at the Philadelphia Academy and other schools, and having a strong propensity for the calling of a sailor, commenced that profession on board of a vessel of Britton and Massey's, and performed several voyages in their employment. In due time he was appointed to the command of a vessel, and was often intrusted with the sale and purchase of cargoes.
In the early part of the year 1798, when there was a strong probability of a war with France, he was induced to offer his services to his country. They were accepted; and on the 13th of March, 1798, he was appointed a lieutenant in the
navy of the United States, and placed on board the frigate United States, under the command of commodore Barry. In this ship he remained until July 16th, 1800, when he was promoted to the command of the United States' schooner Experiment, of twelve guns. Having been ordered to cruise in the West Indies, he arrived on that station, on the 1st of September, 1500; and the same night fell in with the French schooner Deux Amis of eight guns, which the Experiment engaged and captured without any loss, after an action of ten minutes. Shortly after, while cruising under the lee of the island of Barbuda, the Experiment discovered two vessels, one a brig of war, the other a three masted-schooner, both standing for her under a press of sail, and displaying English colours. The Experiment was hove to, and the British signal of the day was made, which not being answered by the strange vessels by the time they were within gun-shot, that signal was hauled down, and the Experiment stood away with all sail set. A chase was now commenced by the enemy, and continued for about two hours; when finding they were outsailed by the Experiment, they relinquished the pursuit, and bore away under easy sail, firing a gun to windward and hoisting French colours. Lieutenant Stewart now manœuvred his schooner so as to bring her in the enemy's wake, to windward, when a chase was made on his part, which continued the whole day before the wind, each vessel crowding all her canvass.
At 8 o'clock at night, the Experiment closed with the three-masted schooner, which was the sternmost of the hostile vessels; and having taken a position on her larboard-quarter, opened a fire upon her from the great guns and small arms, which in about five minutes, compelled her to strike. She was immediately taken possession of, and proved to be the French schooner of war Diana, of fourteen guns and sixty-five men, commanded by M. Peraudeau, lieutenant de Vaisseau. The detention occasioned by removing the prisoners, enabled the brig of war to escape. She mounted, as was afterwards learned, eighteen guns, and had a crew of one hundred and twenty men. The Experiment proceeded to St. Christopher's with her prize.
Soon afterwards she put to sea, and on the 16th of November fell in with an armed schooner in the night, chased, attacked and captured her. This vessel proved to be the Louisa Bridger, of Bermuda, carrying eight nine-pounders, and a stout crew of Bermudians, principally negroes. She was much cut up, and in a sinking condition. The Experiment having given every requisite aid to her British opponent, whom she had mistaken for an enemy, dismissed him, and returned to her station to windward of Marigalante, and Guadaloupe, for the purpose of intercepting the French privateers and their prizes.
On the 14th of December, she fell in with the privateer Flambeau, of sixteen guns and ninety men, with a prize brig, steering for Marigalante. The breeze being light and the enemy to windward, it was late in the afternoon before there was any prospect of closing with him. Notwithstanding all the exertions of the Experiment, the Flambeau escaped in shore; but her prize was retaken. This vessel proved to be the Zebra of and from Baltimorc, laden with flour. During the remainder of this cruise, the Experiment recaptured several American.vessels, sometimes as many as two or three in a day, and thus rescued American property to a considerable amount.
Accounts now arrived of peace having been made with the French republic. The Experiment was thereupon sent from Martinique with a convoy to St. Thomas's. From thence she proceeded to Curragoa, and from thence was ordered to Norfolk, in Virginia, to be put out of commission. On her passage thither, she discovered a vessel in distress near the island of Saona, at the cast end of Hispaniola; and had the good fortune to rescue from the jaws of death, about sixty persons who were on board of her. They consisted chiefly of women and children, the families of several respectable inhabitants of Santo Domingo, who were flying from that illfated city, then besieged by the revolted negroes. The persons thus saved from destruction, had remained two days, without any nourishment, on a small part of the quarter-deck of their vessel, which had struck upon a rock that went through her bottom, and fixed her to the reef, the greatest part of her being under water. They were placed in safety on board of the Experiment, with their plate and other property, which the sailors had recovered by diving into the hold of the wreck; notwithstanding the roughness of the sea. During the whole of this humane and arduous ser