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NOTES ON THE
ESSAY ON MAN.
OF the nature and state of man,
respect to the universe.
Ver. 17, &c.] He can reason only from things known, and judge only with regard to his own system,
Ver. 36, &c.] He is therefore not a judge of his own perfection or imperfection, but is certainly such a being as is suited to his place and rank in the creation.
Ver. 73] His happiness depends on his iguorance to a certain degree.
Ver. 75, &c.] See this pursued in epist. 3. ver. 70, &c. 83, &c.
Ver. 87] And on his hope of a relation to a future state.
Ver. 90) Further opened in epist. 2. ver. 265.epist. 3. ver. 78.- -epist. 4. ver. 336, &c.
Ver. 109] The pride of aiming at more knowledge and perfection, and the impiety of pretending to judge of the dispensations of Providence, the causes of his error and misery.
Ver. 127] The absurdity of conceiting himself the final cause of the creation, or expecting that perfection in the moral world which is not in the natural.
Ver. 162] See this subject extended in epist. 2. from ver. 90, to 112, 155, &c.
Ver. 166] The unreasonableness of the complaints against Providence, and that to possess more faculties would make us miserable.
Ver. 174] Here, with degrees of swiftness, there of force.] It is a certain axiom in the anatomy of creatures, that in proportion as they are formed for strength, their swiftness is lessened; or, as they are formed for swiftness, their strength is abated.
Ver. 177] Vid. epist. 3. ver. 83, &c. and 110, &c.
Ver. 200] There is an universal order and gradation through the whole visible world, of the sensible and mental faculties, which causes the subordi. nation of creature to creature, and of all creatures to man, whose reason alone countervails all other faculties.
Ver. 205]—the headlong lioness—] The manner of the lions hunting their prey in the deserts of Africa is this; at their first going out in the night-time, they set up a loud roar, and then listen to the noise made by the beasts in their flight, pursuing them by the ear, and not by the nostril. It is probable, the story of the Jackall's bunting for the lion was occasioned by observing the defect of scent in that terri. ble animal.
Ver. 225] How much farther this gradation and subordination may extend ; were any part of which broken, the whole connected creation must be destroyed.
Ver. 250] The extravagance, impiety, and pride of such a desire.
Ver. 257] Vid. the prosecution and application of this in epist. 4. ver. 160.
Ver. 273] The consequence of all, the absolute submission due to Providence, both as to our present and future state.
Of the nature and state of man as an individual. The business of man is not to pry into God, but to study himself.
His middle nature, his power, frailties, and the limits of his capacity.
Ver. 43] The two principles of man, self-love and reason, both necessary, 49. Self-love the stronger, and why, 57, their end the same, 71.
Ver. 83] The passions, and their use.
Ver. 122, &c.] The predominant passion, and its force.
The use of this doctrine, as applied to the knowledge of mankind, is one of the subjects of the second book.
Ver. 155] Its necessity, in directing men to different purposes. The particular application of this to the several pursuits of men, and the general good resulting thence, falls also into the succeeding books.
Ver. 165] Its providential use, in fixing our principle, and ascertaining our virtue.
Ver. 185, &c.] Virtue and vice joined in our mixt nature ; the limits near, yet the things separate, and evident. The office of reason.
Ver. 207] Vice odious in itself, and how we deceive ourselves into it.
Ver. 221, &c.] The ends of Providence and general good answered in our passions and perfections. How usefully these are distributed to all orders of
Ver. 239] How useful these are to society in general, and to individuals in particular, in every state, 250, and every age of life, 260.
Ver. 273] See farther of the use of this principle in man, epist. 3. ver. 121, 124, 135, 145, 200, &c. 270, &c. 316, &c. And epist. 4. ver. 348 and 358.
of the nature and state of man, with respect to society. The whole universe one system of society.
Ver. 27] Nothing is made wholly for itself, nor yet wholly for another, but the happiness of all animals mutual.
Ver. 72] Several of the ancients, and many of the orientals since, esteemed those who were struck by lightning as sacred persons, and the particular favourites of Heaven.
Ver. 83] Reason or instinct alike operate to the good of each individual, and they operate also to society, in all animals.
Ver. 115] How far society is carried by instinct.
Ver. 132] How much farther society is carried by reason.
Ver. 148] Of the state of nature : that it was social.
Ver. 170] Reason instructed by instinct in the invention of arts, and in the forms of society.
Ver. 178] Oppian. Halieut. lib. 1. describes this fish in the following manuer : They swim on the
surface of the sea, on the back of their shells, • which exactly resemble the huik of a ship : they (raise two feet like masts, and extend a membrane
between, which serves as a sail; the other two fect they employ as oars at the side. They are usually seen in the Mediterranean.'
Ver. 236] Origin of true religion and government, from the principle of love ; and of superstition and tyranny, from that of fear.
Ver. 270] The influence of self-love operating to the social and public good
V2r. 284] Restoration of true religion and government on their first principle. Mixt governments with the various forms of each, and the true use of all.
Of the nature and state of man, with respect to happiness.
Ver. 27] Happiness the end of all men, and attainable by all.
Ver. 47] It is necessary for order and the common peace, that external goods be unequal, therefore happiness is not constituted in these.
Ver. 65] The balance of human happiness kept equal (notwithstanding externals) by hope and fear.
Ver. 75] In what the happiness of individuals consists, and that the good man has the advantage, even in this world.
Ver. 91] That no man is unhappy through virtue.
Ver. 177] That external goods are not the proper rewards of virtue : often inconsistent with, or destructive of it : but that all these can make no man happy without virtue ; instanced in each of them.
1. Riches. 2. Honours. 3. Titles. 4. Birth. 5. Greatness. 6. Fame. 7. Superior parts.
Ver. 300] That virtue only constitutes a happiness, whose object is universal, and whose prospect eternal.
Ver. 318, &c.] That the perfection of happiness, consists in a conformity to the order of providence here, and a resignation to it, here and hereafter.