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arrived at Alexandria on the 9th of ers with the sublime prospects of June following. The object of his which it was composed, and which visit to Egypt was to construct hy- lavish nature seemed to have scatdraulic machines, to water the fields tered around him, in terrific though with greater expedition, and less delightful magnificence. Mr. Belexpence, than the method usually zoni returned with his friend to adopted in that country. ,,On arriv- Cairo, strongly impressed with the ing at Alexandria, the city was in- influence of a scene which he had fected with the plague, though it long desired, but never expected he was then on the decline. He and should have the happiness to behold. his party, which consisted only of A few days after, he and a party Mrs. Belzoni, James Curtain, an of Europeans visited the pyramids Irish youth, and himself, were, ac- of Sacara, by water, whence he procordingly, obliged to perform qua- ceeded, accompanied only by Mr. rantine at the French Occale, where Turner, to visit the pyramids of they remained till the first of July, Dajior; which, though considerably when the plague had entirely abated. smaller, are in much better preservaThe 24th of June, St. John's day, is tion than any of the rest. If opporeagerly looked for by the Egyptians tunity permitted, they would have during the plague, as it then gene- visited the embalmed mummies of rally begins to decline rapidly,, birds, but a Fellah brought them a circumstance which the natives
an earthen vase containing a bird, attribute to the guardian- power of which appeared to be of the hawk the saint, but which Mr. Belzoni species. The vase was so perfect, justly attributes to the great increase that they believed the Fellah only of heat, which, like the extreme of sought to impose upon them, and, cold, checks the pestilence. On the refusing, consequently, to purchase first of July, Mr. Belzoni and his it, the Fellah, to prove what con
up the Nile, in company noisseurs they were, broke it in their withi Mr. Turner, an English gentle presence. man, but were driven back by con- Two days after their return to trary winds the same evening: The Cairo, Mr. Baghos accompanied him next day they re-embarked, and to the citadel, to introduce him to landed at Aboukir, in consequence the Bashaw ; but as they passed of high winds. They continued along through one of the principal their voyage the same day, and streets, a soldier on horseback rode landed at Rosetta. In four days up to him, and gave him such a afterwards, they reached Boolak, blow on the leg with his stirrup, within a mile of Cairo, to which they that he imagined it cut in two. The immediately proceeded; and as the wound was deep, and two inches monks of the convent of Terressante broad, so that, instead of proceedcould receive no women within their ing to the Bashaw, he was taken to walls, they were accommodated with the convent of Terrassanta, to be an old house in Boolak, belonging cured. The stirrups of the Turkish to Mr. Baghos, the principal inter- soldiers are like shovels, cut very preter of Mahomed Ali, and director short. The Turks were, at this of all foreign affairs. Mr. Baghos time, greatly incensed against the very courteously appointed a day to Bashaw, for ordering thein to learn present him to his Highness, the the European military evolutions, , Bashaw, to propose the object of his a circumstance to which Mr. Belzoni visit. In the meantime, curiosity attributes the injury which he reled bim to see the pyramids in the ceived. neighbourhood of Cairo, in company After recovering from his wound, with Mr. Turner, who procured an he was presented to the Bashaw, escort of soldiers from the Bashaw. who received him with great civility.
- They ascended the first pyramid He seemed to think little about the before the rising of the sun; and, wound in his leg, simply observing, though Mr. Belzoni deals not in the that such things were unavoidable, picturesque style, the scene, as he where there were troops. He imdescribes it, is grand and imposing mediately entered into an arrangebeyond description. Our limits pre- ment with Mr. Belzoni, relative to clude us from entertaining our read- the construction of bis hydraulic machine; but he was not many days to the task, who cannot place himengaged in it, when a revolution self in the same situation with the took place at Cairo among the troops, people, for the motives of whose who were hostile to the introduction conduct he pretends to account. of European tactics; and the Bashaw Mr. Belzoni's water machine was was obliged to take refuge in the finished while the Bashaw happened citadel. Cairo and its vicinity re- to be at Alexandria, and, on his remained a scene of pillage and con- turn, an experiment was made of its fusion for several days, during which, utility. Though constructed of bad our traveller was obliged to confine wood and bad iron, and erected by himself within doors; but the troops Arabian carpenters, it drew six times who remained faithful to the Bashaw more water than the common masucceeded, at length, in restoring chines. The prejudice, however, was order, and the discontented troops very strong against it; and the Bawere sent to encampments in various shaw, fearful to
general stations, at a distance from Cairo, feeling, decided, that it had only The Bashaw, however, was obliged four times the power of the common to relinquish his project of intro- machines. This, however, was all ducing the military evolutions of that Mr. Belzoni had undertaken, Europe among his soldiery.
but an accident soon frustrated its After tranquillity was restored, adoption, and quieted the fears of Mr. Belzoni proceeded with his hy- the people. The Bashaw, to indulge draulic preparations, in which he a frolic, instead of oxen, put fifteen experienced considerable interrup- men into it, to try its effect, but the tion from the Turks, who were not wheel had scarcely turned once, only hostile to all European im- when they all leaped out, leaving provements, but suspected, that if James, the Irish boy, alone in the this hydraulic machine should suc- machine. The wheel, which was ceed, it would deprive many of them consequently overbalanced by the of work. While he was thus en- weight of water, turned back with gaged, he had many opportunities such rapidity, that the catch was of becoming acquainted with the unable to check it; and the boy manners and customs of the Turks, was violently thrown out, having and the occupations and amusements one of his thighs broken. The of the Bashaw, which he very parti. Turks have an insurmountable obcularly describes. The Bashaw is jection to all new inventions which a great marksman, and diverts him- are attended with any accident; and self every evening, about sun-set, in the Bashaw, who had not yet surshooting at an earthen pot, placed mounted the fears of the late rebelon the opposite bank of the Nile. lion, yielded to their superstition, Mr. Belzoni saw him hit a pot, only and renounced the adoption of the fifteen inches high, across the Nile, machine, so that Mr. Belzoni's conwhere the river is much broader tract with him was consigned to than the Thames at Westminster. oblivion. He is extremely fond of European He now determined to leave Cairo, arts, to which his subjects have a and, accordingly, applied to Mr. proportionate aversion. He has, how, Salt, the British Consul, to procure ever, succeeded in introducing the him a firman from the Bashaw, to fabrication of gunpowder, the re- sail up the Nile. Mr. Salt, who had fining of sugar, the making of fine long deliberated on removing the indigo, and the silk manufacture.
head of the statue of the younger Why a ruler should be more studi. Memnon, which lay at Gornou, a ous of those arts which benefit so- village near Thebes, availed himciety at large, than those to whom self of this opportunity, and prothe blessing is communicated, seems posed to Mr. Belzoni the raising of to be
question well worthy of the bust, and conveying it down the philosophic investigation. As our Nile to Alexandria, with an intenlimits will not permit us to enter tion of sending it to London, and into the discussion, we can only ob- offering it as a present to the British serve, that mere abstract philosophy Museum. To this proposal, Mr. can have little, or, rather, no hope Belzoni agreed, but denies, that he of being able to resolve it; and that was regularly employed by the Brino writer can pretend to be adequate tish Consul, as has been publicly stated, and says he received no re- his operations of removing the bust muneration but the expences which nnder very discouraging auspices. he had incurred on the occasion. The only implements he brought
Having made the necessary pre- from Cairo were fourteen poles, parations, Mr. Belzoni departed from eight of which were employed in Cairo on the 30th of June, and met making a sort of cart to lay the bust Ibrahim, Bashaw of Upper Egypt, on, four ropes of palm leaves, and on his way to Siout, to whom he four rollers without tackle of any presented his letters. The Bashaw sort. The want of implements, politely requested of him to deliver however, was little in comparison to them to the Defterdar, who was left the difficulties thrown in his way by in command at Siout. He reached the Turkish Cachefts and CaimaSiout on the 6th of July, and found kans, on whose word no reliance the Defterdar Bey from home. He can be placed. Even when a supewaited on Dr. Scotto, according to rior sends a firman, tiscarry, or or: the instructions which he received der to an inferior governor, though from the Consul, but found him un- he will not positively disobey the willing to promote the success of his order, he will endeavour to prevent undertaking, observing, that “ the its execution one way or other, unbust was a mass of stone not worth less he receives a present from the the carriage." The Bey, however, person whose interest it promotes. on his arrival, received him very Mr. Belzoni, however, succeeded in politely, and furnished him with removing the bust to the banks of orders to the Casheft of the province the Nile, though he had consideraof Erments, who holds jurisdiction ble difficulty in getting the Arabs over the Fellahs of Thebes. Mr. to work; for they not only acted in Belzoni proceeded on his voyage, concert with each other, but seemed and reached Dendera on the 18th, at to have frequently private instrucnight; and visited the celebrated tions from the Cacheits to disappoint temple of Tentyra the next morning. him when he stood most in need of It is the first Egyptian temple that them. Accordingly, if he had an presents itself along the Nile, and hundred men at work one day, he by far the most magnificent. Mr. could not get one of them to appear Belzoni gives a very minute descrip- the day following, though they had tion of this “ Cabinet of Egyptian strict orders to attend him from the Arts, the product of studies for Cachefts, and were regularly paid many centuries.” Here he saw the for their labour hy Mr. Belzoni. famous Zodiac, which, we under- After conveying the bust to the stand, has been purchased since Mr. banks of the Nile, he went with Belzoni left Egypt, by the King of some Arabs to a care, where he was France, out of his own private purse, informed by M. Drouetti, the exto embellish the ceiling of the Louvre. consul-general of the late governFor the descriptiou of this noted ment of France, that a sarcophagus temple, we must refer the reader to was discovered. The ex-consul the work before us, that we may pur- himself endeavoured to remove it, sue Mr. Belzoni on his route. On but could not succeed, the Arabs the 22d, he landed at Luxor, and having cunningly stopped up the saw the ruins of Thebes, for the first great entrance which led to it. Mr. time.
Belzoni entered through a long narMr. Belzoni describes several co- row cavity, where he was frequently lossal figures, which he met with be- obliged to creep on the ground. fore he reached the bust which he They reached the sarcophagus at had to remove, particularly the co- length, which nearly closed up the lussus of Memnon, or Sesostris, or passage. One of the Arabs, 'howOsymandias, or Rhamenoph, or some ever, and Mr. Belzoni's interpreter, other Egyptian monarch, for, as Mr. sueceeded in passing, and it was Belzoni obseryes, so many names agreed that Mr. Belzoni himself, have been given to it, that at last it and the other Arab should wait has no name at all.” He says it there till the interpreter and his would require more labour to convey companion returned. They went so this mass of granite by water than far that the lights entirely disapthe obelisk known by the name of peareil, and a few minutes after the Pompey's Pillar. He commenced interpreter was heard to cry out; O.
mon Dieu ! mon Dieu ! Je suis per- ble and perplexity, Mr. Belzoni du. Mr. Belzoni immediately re- however succeeded in procuring a turned to procure help from the boat, and conveying the bust of other Arabs, but lost his way. At Memnon to Cairo, where he received length, however, he miraculously letters from the consul, who was got out, and found his interpreter then at Alexandria, to proceed to at the entrance. It seems that, after him directly with the colossus, leavleaving Mr. Belzoni, they came to a ing all the other articles he had pit, which they did not perceive till brought with him in the consulate. the Arab fell in. It was then the He left Cairo accordingly on the 3d interpreter cried out, I am lost ; for of January, 1817, and reached Alexe the Arab, in falling, put out both. andria in eleven days, where he lights. The interpreter, however, lodged the colossus in the Bashaw's happening to see a small light at a magazine to await its embarkation, distance, approached it, and after for England. scraping away some loose sand and Mr. Belzoni had left too many stones, got out of the cave through objects of curiosity behind him to an aperture in the large entrance remain satisfied with his first trip which the Arabs had stopped up. into Upper Egypt and Nubia. He Mr. Belzoni immediately set the proposed accordingly a second voy, Arabs to work, and cleared out the
age to Mr. Salt, particularly with a large entrance, in order to remove view to open the temple of Ybsamthe sarcophagus, but the Cacheft of bul, which he attempted in his first Erments, whose permission he had journey, but which he was obliged heretofore in all his operations, sent to give over for want of sufficient him word to desist, as the sarcopha
money to pay the workmen. The gus was sold to the French consul, consul readily embraced the propoFinding he could not, at present, sal, and Mr. Belzoni set off from succeed in his design, and having Boolak on the 20th of February, in no boat fit to convey the colossal company with a Mr. Beechey, whom bust to Cairo, he sent a courier to he took along with him at the conMr. Salt, to send him a boat for that sul's request.
On their arrival at purpose, and determined, in the Eshmonueir, they were informed mean time, to go up the Nile, and that two agents of Mr. Drouetti, the return before the courier arrived French ex-consul, were making a from Cairo. His voyage up the Nile forced march to Thebes, Mr. Bel. is extremely interesting, and places zoni justly concluding that their ob the character of the Turks and their ject was to reach that place before chiefs in a truer point of view than himself to purchase up all the anthat of any other traveller. The tiques, that had been accumulated by principal places and remains of an. the Arabs during the preceding seatiquity, which he describes, are Esné,' son, and also apprehensive they Edfu, Assouan, the Isle of Elephan, would take possession of a spot tine and its temple, supposed to be where he had made excavations and dedicated to the serpent Knuphis, discovered sphinxes and statues, if the beautiful Island of Philoe, T'affa, they reached Thebes before him, in, the ruins of Kalabshe, Garba Dan mediately determined to travel by dour, Garbah Merieh, Garba Gyrshe, land, and ordered a horse and ass the temple of Dakke and its Greek to be got ready, He took along inscriptions, Mebarraka, or Offelina, with him a Greek servant, who at Seboua, Korosko, Deir the great tended on board, and leaving the capital of Lower Nubia, Ibrim and boat in Mr. Beechey's charge, he its sepulchral chambers, Faras, Yb- arrived in Thebes by forced marches sambul and its temple, half-buried in five days and a half. It happened in the sand, Wady. Halfa, the Isle of that the Defterdar Bey of Siout had Mainarty, and the rock of Aspir, giver Mr. Belzoni a letter to the which commands a view of the se British consul, to which he expected cond Cataract. Here Mr. Belzoni an answer by Mr. Belzoni on his was obliged to return; but on his return; but the consul having ne. arrival at Thebes, he found that no glected to write to him he was so boat had arrived from Cairo, though enraged, that he went direct to Lux. Mr. Salt had sent him a remittance or, and ordered the ground where of noney... After considerable trou. Mr. Belzoni had discovered the sphinxes, to be dug up, and all its ed. On entering, he was surprized contents were afterwards given to
to find it one of the most beautiful the agents of M. Drouetti, who took temples in Egypt, enriched with every opportunity of conciliating beautiful intaglios, paintings, colosthe good will of the Bey, and irri- sal figures, &c. We regret our litating him against the English party. mits will not afford us to give ever Mr. Belzoni, however, continued to
an abstract of his description; but make many important discoveries, it is well worthy the attention of though every possible difficulty was every lover of antiquity. thrown in his way. Among the re
Mr. Belzoni, aftor visiting every lics of antiquity which he discovered, place worthy the attention of the were two brazen vessels, which he antiquary and inquisitive traveller, purchased from one of the Fellahs, returned to Thebes, and
commenced and which he describes as the finest his operations anew. Finding M. and most perfect pieces of Egyptian Drouetti's agents making, excavaantiquity he had ever seen. They tions about Gornau, and knowing were covered with engraved hiero- from experience he could not be at glyphics, admirably executed ; and peace in their neighbourhood, he de
; were about eighteen inches high, termined to make the sacred valley and ten in diameter, their sound re
of Beban el Malook the scene of bis sembling that of Corinthian brass. researches; having previously obThe French party, finding the suc
tained a firman from the Cacheft cess that attended Mr. Belzoni's la- of Ghous, who was now ruler over bours, succeeded at length in per
Thebes, directed to the Scheiks of suading the Bey, who was already Gournou, commanding them to supincensed against the English, to ply him with twenty men. In this issue an order to all the Cachefts, fortunate valley Mr. Belzoni made and Caimakans who commanded on his grand discovery of the tomb of both sides of Thebes, not to permit Psammuthis, King of Egypt. He Mr. Belzoni's party to collect any
caused the earth to be dug up at the more antiquities, nor to allow the foot of a steep hill, immediately unArabs to work, or sell any thing der a torrent, where no vestige of a more to them on any account. Mr. tomb appeared. He kept the men at Belzoni expostulated, and threaten- work, however, for three days, and ed to write to the Bashaw, on which at length discovered an entrance into he counteracted the order, but short. the solid rock, eighteen feet below Jy renewed it again, so that Mr.
the surface. The entrance led to a Belzoni finding it useless to remain corridor, thirty-six feet two inches at Thebes, determined to proceed long, eight feet four inches wide, farther
the Nile. He left a Sheik and eight feet nine inches high: the to guard his collection, which he paintings on the ceiling and the hierocovered with earth, and encompass- glyphics, in basso relievo indicated ed with a mud wall before his de
that it was the entrance to some magparture.
nificent tomb. At the end was a Mr. Belzoni gives, not only a very
stair-case twenty-three feet in depth, circumstantial, but a very pleasing,
which led to another corridor, still account of the various places, curio- larger and more sumptuous than the sities, and antiquities which he vi- former: at the end was a pit, thirty sited and explored in his second feet deep, and fourteen by twelve voyage up the Nile, among which feet wide; beyond which he descried may be particularly noticed his ac- a small aperture, two feet wide, and count of the Island of Philoe, and two feet and a half high. He conits curiosities. His opening the tem- trived, by placing beams across the ple of Ybsambul, however, excites pit, to reach the entrance, and open the attention of the reader more than it: on entering, Mr. Belzoni found all the rest, not only because it was himself in a beautiful hall, twenty: half buried in the sand, but because seven feet and a half long, and about its internal part was never seen by twenty-six feet wide, supported by the oldest inhabitant then living. square pillars.. This entrance hall He was twenty-eight days in remov- led to a chamber twenty-eight feet ing the sand which closed up the long, and twenty-five feet and a half entrance, and had frequently up- wide, also supported by pillars. On wards of one hundred men employ
one side of the entrance hall he diss