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citizens of mature years, could come to this camp for a time every year-even as gray-haired men to the Plattsburg camp--so that this reservation used by day for the youth might be a community drill ground at other hours-a continuation school, a place where all of varying creeds and traditions might meet not only for entertainment but for the promotion of that higher community good which can come only thru the upward struggle of the many and not of the few alone-to make a better Kingston and thru a better Kingston a better state and world.

John H. FINLEY COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION

ALBANY, N. Y.

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chemistry, history and civics, music, poetry and art, are, after all, the mental “manual of arms,” the “tactics” by which men are enabled not only to develop themselves but to learn to move and act together, in the conquests of the mind. And in the conflicts, of which these and like disciplines give intimation, and for which they help to give preparedness, are to be found what William James has called the “moral equivalent of war."

Shortly before his death, that beloved poet, Richard Watson Gilder, who in his young manhood was a soldier, wrote these lines for me. They are the prophecy of new valors that will multiply from such camps as this:

'Twas said: "When roll of drum and battle's roar
Shall cease upon the earth, Oh, then no more
The deed, the race, of heroes in the land."
But scarce that word was breathed when one small hand
Lifted victorious o'er a giant wrong
That had its victims crushed thru ages long;
Some woman set her pale and quivering face,
Firm as a rock, against a man's disgrace;
A little child suffered in silence lest
His savage pain should wound a mother's breast;
Some quiet scholar flung his gauntlet down
And risked, in Truth's great name, the synod's frown;
A civic hero, in the calm realm of laws,
Did that which suddenly drew a world's applause;
And one to the pest his lithe young body gave

That he a thousand thousand lives might save.
And I can not think of a better inscription for your walls.

I said after seeing the camp at Plattsburg that I wished every able-bodied man might be conscripted to spend his vacation in preparing for some higher community service. Under our compulsory education law, we have conscripted our children to spend years in our elementary schools, public or private. But this is a voluntary camp, or if there is conscription for it, the conscription is of the desires and sacrifices of parents or the worthy aspirations of the youth who enlist. You are giving every boy, every girl, a chance to make this purposeful preparation.

And I am thinking what a splendid thing it would be for the community if all young men and women, even

II

A REPORT ON THE GARY EXPERIMENT IN NEW

YORK CITY This experiment was inaugurated in February, 1915, when the school was reorganized in accordance with the duplicate school program of the Gary schools. In the beginning, however, we had almost no feature peculiar to Gary except its program. We had no extra shops equipt, no studios for music and drawing, no laboratories for nature and science, no extra playgrounds or gymnasiums, no library, no swimming pool. We had merely the ordinary equipment of one of New York's best public elementary schools.

PART-TIME Before reorganization, the school had 1,250 children on part-time. Twenty-one additional classes were sent to the auditorium one hour a day for an alleged study period, and were thus reported as full-time pupils, altho they were practically on part-time.

Under the by-laws of the board of education four hours are counted a full day for children of the first year. P. S. 45 had 514 of such children. Adding these first-year classes and the twenty-one upper-grade classes using the auditorium, to the regular part-time pupils, we see that some 2,700 children out of a total of 3,065 had only a four-hour day in the classroom. The Gary program immediately put 1,629 of the children on a five-hour schedule, and all the rest--1,431 in number-upon a schedule of 64/3 hours.

THE GARY PROGRAM

This remarkable feat was accomplished by the duplicate school plan and by lengthening the school day. The

i This report covers the four months of operation under the Gary plan from March 1 to June 30, 1915.

New York part-time system is also a duplicate school
plan; but by it only half the children are accommodated
in the school at one time, while the other half are sent home
for two hours. The Gary plan keeps all the children in
school all of the school day. How this is accomplished
in P. S. 45 may be seen from the following schedule:
X SCHOOL

Y SCHOOL
Church

Church
36
Spec. Home 36

Spec. Home classes | Aud. Play Work Excur. classes Aud. Play Work Excur. 8.30 Arith.

Div.1 Div.3 | Div.2 Div.4 9.10 Lang.

3 " 1

4 9.50

Div.1 Div.3 Div.2 Div.4 Arith, 10 30 " 3 " 1

Lang. 11.10 At Luncheon

Read. 12.10 Read.

At Luncheon 1.10 Hist.

Div.2 Div. 4 Div.1 Div.3 1.50 Geog.

Div.

4 " 2 1 2.30

Div.2 Div.4 Div.1 Div.3

Div. 3.10

Hist.
3 || Geog.

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II A REPORT ON THE GARY EXPERIMENT IN NEW

YORK CITY This experiment was inaugurated in February, 1915, when the school was reorganized in accordance with the duplicate school program of the Gary schools. In the beginning, however, we had almost no feature peculiar to Gary except its program. We had no extra shops equipt, no studios for music and drawing, no laboratories for nature and science, no extra playgrounds or gymnasiums, no library, no swimming pool. We had merely the ordinary equipment of one of New York's best public elementary schools.

PART-TIME Before reorganization, the school had 1,250 children on part-time. Twenty-one additional classes were sent to the auditorium one hour a day for an alleged study period, and were thus reported as full-time pupils, altho they were practically on part-time.

Under the by-laws of the board of education four hours are counted a full day for children of the first year. P. S. 45 had 514 of such children. Adding these first-year classes and the twenty-one upper-grade classes using the auditorium, to the regular part-time pupils, we see that some 2,700 children out of a total of 3,065 had only a four-hour day in the classroom.

The Gary program immediately put 1,629 of the children on a five-hour schedule, and all the rest-1,431 in number- upon a schedule of 61/3 hours.

One half the school (or 36 classes) occupies the 36 ordinary classrooms all the time; but, as the academic work requires only 220 minutes a day, both the X school and the Y school may use the classrooms alternately, thus keeping the rooms busy from 8.30 A.M. until 3.50 P.M.

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DIVISIONS

It will be noticed that each school is divided into four divisions. As there are 36 classes in each school, the divisions contain 9 classes each, as follows:

Division i--grades 4B-8B
Division 2- grades 4B-8B
Division 3-grades 1A-4A

Division 4-grades 1A-4A The program shows how each of the divisions of one school is employed while the other school occupies the classrooms for academic work. Thus, for the first period, Division i of the Y school is in the auditorium; Division 2 is distributed among the shops and laboratories; Division 3 is at play; and Division 4 is engaged in home duties, religious instruction in churches, library, or excursion work. During the second period, Divisions 2 and 4 continue where they are, while i and 3 exchange places. In other words, auditorium and play periods are 40 minutes long, while

THE GARY PROGRAM

This remarkable feat was accomplished by the duplicate school plan and by lengthening the school day. The

| This report covers the four months of operation under the Gary plan from March 1 to June 30, 1915.

8

shop, church, and others, have 80-minute periods. During the next three periods the Y school occupies the classrooms, while the X school is distributed among the special activities as shown in the program.

PERIODS

There are 10 periods a day. All are 40 minutes in length except the 5th and 6th, which are 60 minutes long. One of these long periods is used by each school for luncheon and the other for reading. Reading and language represent all the time devoted to English. This amounts to 100 minutes a day for each class and grade, or 500 minutes per week. The subjects included under reading and language vary in different grades, in accordance with the emphasis demanded by the Course of Study. Thus, in 8B reading means memory, meaning and use of words, penmanship, reading, composition. In 1A reading means word study, word building, phonics, reading. Language varies in a similar way. Any combination will do that fills up one hour for reading each day and 40 minutes for language. The combinations here reported can be improved, because a teacher who has the meaning and use of words should also teach spelling and derivation.

ECONOMY OF OPERATION Under all other systems of organization known to me, each regular class has a teacher and all special work in shops is done by additional teachers. Thus, before reorganization, P. S. 45 had 72 regular classes, 72 regular teachers, 2 manual training teachers, and one cooking teacher, or a total of 75 teachers. The Gary program requires no more teachers than the school had before, yet it provides manual training for boys of grades 5A-8B (before only for grades 7A-8B); gardening for the same grades; pottery; carpentry; sewing, dressmaking, millinery and cooking for girls (grades 5B-8B); and printing for boys and girls (5A-8B).

How is this apparent miracle accomplished? By the application of scientific management to school organiza

shop, church, and others, have 80-minute periods. During the next three periods the Y school occupies the classrooms, while the X school is distributed among the special activities as shown in the program.

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per week.

PERIODS There are 10 periods a day. All are 40 minutes in length except the 5th and 6th, which are 60 minutes long. One of these long periods is used by each school for luncheon and the other for reading. Reading and language represent all the time devoted to English. This amounts to 100 minutes a day for each class and grade, or 500 minutes

The subjects included under reading and language vary in different grades, in accordance with the emphasis demanded by the Course of Study. Thus, in 8B reading means memory, meaning and use of words, penmanship, reading, composition. In 1A reading means word study, word building, phonics, reading. Language varies in a similar way. Any combination will do that fills up one hour for reading each day and 40 minutes for language. The combinations here reported can be improved, because a teacher who has the meaning and use of words should also teach spelling and derivation.

tion. For instance, we have seen that the regular academic work done in the classrooms-arithmetic, language, reading, history, geography, music-requires 220 minutes a day. The teachers work five hours, or 300 minutes; hence by departmentalizing the work, we require for 72 classes, 15,120 minutes per day (220 X 72). Since each teacher works 300 minutes, we need (15,120 = 300) 52 teachers. Fifteen of the teachers have two reading (one hour) periods a day; hence they can take only four 40-minute periods. This gives a teaching day of only 280 minutes. On this account we need two additional academic teachers, bringing the total up to 54.

We have the auditoriums in use eight periods a day, and we need four teachers for this duty. Hence we must have 58 teachers to do the academic teaching and auditorium work of 72 classes. This releases 14 teaching positions which we assign to specialists in science, art, and the various vocational shops. The school program, therefore, requires no more service of individual class teachers than the ordinary five-hour school, yet it provides a rich program of study, work, and play which keeps the children busy from 8.30 to 3.50. The education of the children in P. S. 45 under the Gary program costs very little more per capita than it did under the old system, when 90 per cent of the children were on a fourhour day and had only the barren bookish education of the traditional school.

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ECONOMY OF OPERATION Under all other systems of organization known to me, each regular class has a teacher and all special work in shops is done by additional teachers. Thus, before reorganization, P. S. 45 had 72 regular classes, 72 regular teachers, 2 manual training teachers, and one cooking teacher, or a total of 75 teachers. The Gary program requires no more teachers than the school had before, yet it provides manual training for boys of grades 5A-8B (before only for grades 7A-8B); gardening for the same grades; pottery; carpentry; sewing, dressmaking, millinery and cooking for girls (grades 5B-8B); and printing for boys and girls (5A-8B).

How is this apparent miracle accomplished? By the application of scientific management to school organiza

SPECIAL ACTIVITIES I have already explained that the work of a Gary school is divided into regular and special, the regular work being done in classrooms by 58 teachers for 72 classes. The special work in P. S. 45 for the present is limited to the following:

(1) Manual training, (2) Cooking, (3) Millinery, (4) Dressmaking, (5) Drawing, (6) Science, (7) Printing, (8) Carpentry, (9) Gardening, (10) Pottery, (11) Excursion, Home, etc., (12) Auditorium, (13) Physical training in gymnasium), (14) Play (including dancing, baseball, and

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