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The University The belated report of President Vincent of Minnesota

of the University of Minnesota for the academic year 1913-14 contains interesting statements of conditions at hand in the year under review in this important state institution, of conditions determined for the near future in educational policy and of others still to be desired.

An inquiry made for the year 1912–13 concerning the earnings of university teachers from outside sources, now first published in this report, showed that sixty per cent of full-time teachers earned incomes in addition to their stipends to the total amount of $52,607, $20,313 of which, or 38.6 per cent, was received for work done during vacations. These outside earnings were derived from professional practise-legal, engineering, medical and surgical, from expert services in cases at law, from routine professional work-drafting, computing, blood-testing, etc., from laboratory tests, analyses, etc., and from literary work and lectures. Rules governing this matter of private practise by members of the faculties adopted by the regents of the university are printed in the report.

An important event in the medical school of the university during the year was the establishment of a system of teaching fellowships with the purpose, as the report explains it, of providing in the clinical departments welltrained, full-time assistants and research workers, and thus affording a basis for graduate teaching. Each fellowship will normally be held for three years at a stipend of $500 for the first year, $750 for the second, and $1,000 for the third. Candidates must, as a general rule, have re

ceived the M.D. degree from an acceptable medical school and have served one year as an interne in a good hospital.

The report calls attention to the need of a deeper recognition of the social aspects of education, in general, and of the duties of the state university, in particular, to the community that supports it. “The public support of higher education,” it says sententiously, “is primarily justified by its contribution to social welfare."

The paragraph on research may well be quoted in its entirety for its applicability not alone to Minnesota, but to every university in the United States. “Every institution of higher education needs the invigorating influence of original investigation. A group of scholars must kindle enthusiasm by pushing forward the frontiers of knowledge. The results of investigation may not always have an immediate practical utility, but the history of the growth of human thought shows that investigation is fundamental to all kinds of progress. The University of Minnesota devotes itself primarily to teaching, but it can not do this teaching effectively unless it also fosters, under reasonable conditions, original research."

The report shows a student enrolment in all colleges and schools of 4,155, of whom 671 are registered in summer sesssion. “Subcollegiate" students number 3,209 and extension students 1,628, making an entire student total of 8,992. The corps of instruction, including extension work, is 608. An earnest statement is made of the need of more teachers adequately to care for the increasing student body. Massachusetts

The report of President Maclaurin of the Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for 1915-16, calls particular attention to the progress of the construction of the new buildings of the Institute. The exterior of the group, it is stated, is now practically complete. It is planned to have formal exercises for the dedication of the buildings in June, when it is expected they will be finished except for the installation of equipment. One of the many reasons for moving to a new site, says the report, was the need for improving the living conditions of the students, and the impossibility of making adequate provision in the present neighborhood. As a beginning, ground has now been broken for the erection of the Institute's first dormitory to accommodate two hundred students. Provision has also recently been made by gifts for a house for the President on the Institute grounds. The gifts of the year for the new site were $688,927. The entire amount received from gifts and legacies for all purposes was $877,814.

The total student enrolment for the year was 1900. “The rapid growth of the Institute in recent years," says the report, “makes it clear that our new buildings are none too large and that in several departments we shall very soon have to face the problem of further buildings or of limitation of numbers."

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The first annual report of President GoodHopkins

now of Johns Hopkins University, for the University

year 1914-15, contains a statement of the work done during the year, but lays particular emphasis on the present needs of the university. The principal event of the year under review was, of course, the formal installation of the new President on May 20.

This was followed, on the day after, by the dedication, at the new site at Homewood, of the Academic Building and the Laboratory of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. The past year, according to the report, appears to mark the beginning of the end of the movement begun many years ago of transferring the work of the university to the new site. The engineering department has carried on its work there during the year; and work in plant physiology and botany has been conducted there for several years. With the completion of the new buildings already indicated, and the civil engineering building, construction of which has been authorized by the trustees, satisfactory provision is now made for all the departments of the university with the single exception of chemistry.

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The corps of instruction during the year numbered 232, 86 in the philosophical and engineering departments and 146 in medicine. The number of students enrolled in the regular courses in all departments of instruction was 926.

There are two needs, says the report, which must soon be met, if the work of the university is to be carried on under the most favorable conditions. The first of these needs is an increase in the salaries of a number of the teaching force, particularly in the case of those receiving the smaller salaries, and until the present inadequacies can be remedied it is recommended that few, if any, increases in the teaching force be made. The second need is for greater facilities for carrying on the work of research and investigation which has always been regarded as the principal work of the university. In this connection the interesting opinion is exprest that the time has come for all higher institutions of learning to consider in all seriousness whether they are justified in requesting or even in receiving aid for the prosecution of work for which ample provision is made elsewhere. “We may properly ask the local community in which we are placed,” the report continues, "for the means to meet local demands. We should not, it seems to me, ask either that community or the larger outside world for help in directions in which our efforts would result merely in inaugurating competition with other institutions already in satisfactory occupation of the field. Certainly we should not proceed in a policy of expansion from motives of institutional or local pride. For every university is under an obligation, which transcends all other considerations, to contribute to the best of its ability and in the most effective way to the general advancement of knowledge.”

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