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runs athwart the experience of the business world as well as that of the race. A far better tenure can be secured by a clause used in one of our large cities, i. e., "The Superintendent of Schools shall hold his office at the pleasure of the Board of Education; he may be removed at any time, two-thirds of the members of the Board voting in the affirmative."

The author proposes in Chapter IX a tentative standardization of methods of appointing teachers in the larger cities. This solution of the question, tho admirably presented, will not appeal, except from the standpoint of expediency, to those who are in touch with the problem. The author is to be complimented, however, for his tentative plan which is an excellent piece of constructive work. He has pointed clearly to, and indicated accurately, the trend which the solution of the problem should take. FRANK A. FITZPATRICK

BOSTON, MASS.

The Oberlehrer. WILLIAM SETCHEL LEARNED. Cambridge, 1914. Harvard University Press. p. xiv + 150.

The Oberlehrer marks the beginning of a series of Harvard Educational Studies, and marks it auspiciously. Besides the benefit of a rather exhaustive investigation of source material bearing on his subject, Dr. Learned has had the advantage of two years, intimate contact with German secondary schools and teachers.

The first chapter pictures the plight of the early schoolmaster, from the middle ages to the middle of the eighteenth century. During this period, when the schools were completely dominated by the church, the secondary teacher had no social status and no more than a pittance in the way of financial remuneration. The teaching position in the secondary school was merely a stepping stone for the more able or fortunate aspirants to the clergy. It was a permanent position for only those who were unfortunate enough to be rejected for the more respectable positions in the church service.

In the second chapter is considered the secondary school

and the Oberlehrer in the last half of the eighteenth and in the nineteenth century up to 1871. In the first part of this period the “new humanism” was born. The great educational leader of this period, Friedrich August Wolf, scorned the church as a controlling force in education, and in cooperation with Humboldt, endeavored to establish a national educational ideal in the field of secondary education. Greek was for a time made to live and minister to the social and inspirational needs of youth. Toward the middle of the nineteenth century, however, the teaching again degenerated into a grammatical, dissection process. The school, tho at that time already a state institution, lost connection with national life and became estranged from popular interests. The narrowness of aim in secondary education just following the middle of the century was due to the domination by the universities, which became as complete as that of the church had been earlier.

The enviable and steadily improving condition of the Oberlehrer during the third period (1871 to the present) is founded upon three principal developments; the rise of the realschule and the realgymnasien and a correspondingly increased attention to the more modern studies in the gymnasien, at the expense of the older humanities; the realization on the part of secondary teachers that they have a peculiar work, distinct from the advanced scholarship and research of the universities; and the recognition by the state of the Oberlehrerstand as socially and financially on a par with the profession of the administration of justice.

The author realizes that the high school of America is not quite comparable to the German secondary school, either in the scope of its work (in as much as the latter carries its students to a point intermediate between the advancement of the high school and the college in America) or still less in its social setting. Nevertheless, he thinks that some valuable suggestions may be gained by American high school teachers from a study of the German Oberlehrer. He finds much desirable freedom and initiative among American high school teachers that is lacking in Germany. Still,

there is in Germany a dignity and a respect for the work that is hardly yet known in America. German secondary teachers attained, as early as 1810, a collective consciousness and a very high standard of qualification for entrance into the profession of secondary teaching. American high school teachers need to throw off more completely the yoke of the universities and to develop such a "collective consciousness." They need to develop a real profession of secondary teaching, and this they can attain only thru some such higher measure of standardization as that proposed by Dr. Learned for entrance into the work of teaching in American high schools.

JOSEPH HENRY JOHNSTON

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS

College sons and college fathers. 1915. 223 p.

HENRY S. CANBY. Harper Brothers,

Messrs. Harper & Brothers have gathered in book form a collection of readable and suggestive essays by Professor Canby, of Yale, and have given them the somewhat misleading title of College sons and college fathers. The citizen who, having become a college father by sending his son to any one of the less sophisticated state universities, or even to institutions like Chicago or Columbia, and who looks to this book for guidance, will be inclined to ask to have his money returned. It does not touch closely the life which an American college boy is living at any but a comparatively small group of institutions. These are mostly in the east, and are populated in the main by boys who are sent to college because it is the thing to do, and whose parents are likely to regard their intellectual progress as wholly secondary in importance to their social. As a sympathetic and discriminating portrayal, however, of the typical students in these "select" institutions, and of the incidental examples of their kind to be found elsewhere, Professor Canby's book deserves high praise.

He shows that in too many instances the early environment of these youths has been a disastrous mixture of overhandling and neglect-the chapter on the Undergraduate

Background is, perhaps, the best in the book-and he does not belittle the difficulties of overcoming this initial handicap and interesting them in the things of the mind and the spirit. On the other hand, he realizes that biologically speaking they are picked stock, and that their education, if it is possible really to educate them, is of particular importance to the community since these boys are going to have first chance at the worth-while opportunities of our American life after they get out of college.

Clearly as Professor Canby appreciates the difficulties in the way of gaining and holding the interest of students of this type in intellectual things, it is evident that experience has increased rather than dulled his enthusiasm for his work as a college teacher of English. His comments on its various aspects are not only fresh, candid and good humored, but are sane and acute. If they fail to penetrate the conventionalism of many of the college sons and college fathers to whom they are nominally addrest, as the present reviewer fears they may, they will prove of interest, profit, and, most important, of rational encouragement to the present generation of college teachers.

FREDERICK P. KEPPEL COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

The aims and defects of college education. FosTER P. BOSWELL. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1915. 78 p.

Hobart College recently sent out to a group of men of affairs, lawyers, bankers, engineers, heads of professional schools and the like, the following inquiries:

“What traits of character and mind should a college aim to develop in its students to make them useful and efficient in modern life?"

“In what ways does the present college education fail in giving students training it is able to give?"

Professor Boswell of that institution has made a selection from the replies and has published them with his comments and conclusions as Volume 1 of the publications of the Hobart College Press. Similar collections of views have been made in Sunday newspapers and popular maga

zines. The present material is, of course, more carefully selected and it has the advantage of an excellent introduction by Mr. George Eastman of Rochester, but after all, these collections bear a strange family resemblance. Altho the writers doubtless have no intent to deceive, what their statements really represent is what they think the country expects them to say. It is certainly not what men of this type are likely to put into practise in their relations with their own sons. No matter what may be thought requisite for the sons of other people, for their own boys the badge of real success in college is recognized at home in the fraternity pin or the varsity letter. The qualities to which these gentlemen give the hall mark of their approval are desirable qualities, and it may be said in passing, have been recognized as such by generations of college teachers as well as of college critics, but they can not be taught. Maturity, for example, can not be taught and many of the recommendations are in effect that college boys should be mature. Other desirable qualities come at birth, if at all, and still others can be developed only in childhood.

The real opportunity of the college beyond the furnishing of a modicum of information and the formation of habits of attention and industry is the chance to develop in its students a healthy intellectual curiosity, a quality hardly suggested by any of the Hobart correspondents, but one which may be relied upon to produce, as a by-product if you will, the initiative and other desirable attributes most frequently mentioned.

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

In Professor Boswell's own contribution, it is pleasant to see that he and presumably Hobart College are not inclined to yield to the current temptation to vocationalize the old-fashioned college.

FREDERICK P. KEPPEL

Out of no little classroom experience has come a Conversational French reader for beginners, by Messrs. Bierman and Frank, of De Witt Clinton High School, of New York

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