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in a spirit of antagonism. If he do enter in this spirit he will come away—if he come away at all, a smaller self than he entered. Antagonism closes the doors of knowledge; sympathy opens them; antagonism dulls appreciation; sympathy quickens; antagonism narrows; sympathy broadens. The sympathy should be both intellectual and emotional, each acting on and reenforcing the other. The traveler, like the missionary, finds he secures results the richer as his sympathy is the heartier. Are not Dickens' Notes on America less valuable because he had so little sympathy with the country of which he wrote?
The most comprehensive thing to be said about the methods and means for securing the richest worth of the education of travel is that one is to take best care of oneself. Oneself represents the capital stock of the traveler. Any impairment of its resources is disastrous. If this stock be kept at its full earning capacity, rich dividends and large increments of advantage are assured. Most travelers fail to appreciate the worth of themselves. Their appreciation of the value of their purse is keener than their appreciation of the value of their brains. They economize in money; they do not economize effectively in intellectual force.
In the education of travel, as in all education, oneself is to be maintained at the height of efficiency. The physical health is of primary worth. The danger of its suffering by irregular habits is great; the risk of its impairment by under-eating, by over-eating, by ill-regulated eating is constant. Sleep is in peril of being damaged; and opportunities for exercise are naturally limited. The intellect, too, becomes wearied. It ceases to respond to the attractions of the world's exterior, or to quicken itself by or for thinking. Even the heart, as in intense joy or sorrow, becomes exhausted. Exterior causes directly promote exhaustion. The new sounds and the new sights—long heard or long seen—the new methods of life and work, all new conditions calling out either enthusiasm or disgust, make drafts on every resource. Unconscious, as well as
conscious, forces work to deplete strength. The traveler is in peril of becoming, like the boating or football men, overtrained, stale. He can not do or give his best, or receive what is best for him to receive. Travel, in such a condition, is as useless as a college education given to a youth without the force of responsiveness. Friends of mine making a trip round the world rested every third day; out of each week at least two days were sacredly set aside for purposes of recreation.
Worthy education, whether pursued in one place or as a peripatetic, represents hard work. The work is harder according as the moving is greater. Therefore special care is to be taken to save oneself from the bad effects of overwork. Sleep, food, exercise, form the trinity of forces which are to be conserved.
Taken at the right age, taken under good conditions, the education of travel is of great worth. The age usually chosen is rather too early than too late, except for the lad of intellectual parts. Taken before the age of eighteen, unless the mind is inquisitive, it is seldom of full worth. Taken after graduation at college, it represents the proper age and degree of education. The education of travel, well supplements to the sober-minded youth the education of the college. This young graduate still holds his powers of observations acute, and he is also in the age of intellectual discrimination and of moral thoughtfulness. He is able to compare, as well as to observe. Wide traveling also, occasionally pursued thruout one's increasing years, is a continuation of education which helps to make life rich in thoughtfulness, broad in tolerance, tender in sympathy, and of the noblest effectiveness.
CHARLES F. THWING WESTERN RESERVE UNIVERSITY
THE EDUCATION OF THE IMMIGRANT EDUCATION OF IMMIGRANT ADULTS AND EVENING SCHOOLS
FOR FOREIGNERS The education of the immigrant adult should begin on shipboard when these people have nothing to do but listen and learn. During the two weeks of passage they are particularly alive to the best ideals that we can give them. Trained social workers appointed by civil service examination should be selected to do this work. The worker could give classes in English every day; he could give talks on American government and citizenship. He should have a small library of books and pamphlets in various languages. He could act as guardian of these people against abuse from deck-hands. He could give stereopticon lectures. He could provide for concerts in which the foreigners themselves would take part. He could warn them against the dangers to which they are exposed in America. The greatest value in teaching them on shipboard lies in the fact that it arouses their interest in English and stimulates them to continue studying in the evening schools when they land.
Why is it necessary or even desirable to educate the immigrant adult? For two reasons: for our own protection and for the immigrant's benefit. Today the majority of immigrants coming to this country come to better their economic condition. Therefore it is our first business to teach him English-the colloquial English that will enable him to get on in life; to get a job, to keep it and then to get a better one; to find his way about the streets and to familiarize himself with American life.
If he is a married man he must be educated for the sake of his family. Too often we find that the cause of dis
rupted immigrant homes is due to the fact that the parents do not understand nor sympathize with their children who have been remoulded in our public schools. Children become ashamed of their parents' ways and lose the proper respect for them. Quarrels ensue and the older boys and girls leave home to work in the mill or factory.
SELECTION OF EVENING SCHOOL TEACHERS Teaching the adult immigrant is a wholly different problem from teaching the immigrant child. The evening schools should be entirely separate and under different management and supervision from the day schools. No teacher should teach in the evening schools who teaches all day in the public schools. The teacher who teaches adults should be healthy and vigorous. He should possess originality, resourcefulness, enthusiasm, perseverance and sympathy. He should know his students personally; he should be well versed in their occupations and interests in order to connect the lesson with their daily lives.
In my opinion it is unnecessary that the teacher be acquainted with the immigrant's own language. Last year with a class of Germans I began by letting them know that I had a slight acquaintance with their language. This proved to be a serious mistake, because I soon found that more German than English was spoken in the classroom. It became necessary for me to do a great deal of translating. The pupil should learn to think in English. The successful teacher is the one who makes the pupil the active person during the process of instruction. short time ago I was reconfirmed in my opinion on this point when several Greeks came to me with complaints about the methods employed by one of their own countrymen in teaching English. They preferred to attend the Y. M. C. A. school where the teacher was unacquainted with their tongue.
THE METHOD AND CONTENT OF INSTRUCTION First of all the teacher must not forget that his primary function is to teach English and not geography, mathematics
or chemistry. He usually commences the evening's work with conversation. The subject of conversation should be based upon the foreigner's experience. It should be about his work, his home, his country or his business relations. What the teacher must do is to give the pupils English equivalents for what they already know in their own language. He must teach them to express these words in such a way that they will be understood. Thus conversation will be made the basis of instruction. A drill in phonetics, concert reading and individual reading will lead up to conversation. The unaccustomed ear must be made accustomed to the sounds of our words and phrases. Grammar should be taught in connection with each lesson, but it should at all times take a minor place on the program. Dry, formal technique will fail to hold the interest of any group. Spelling is the stumbling block of the foreigner. His language is generally phonetic while ours is not, hence the difficulty. Therefore we have the double task of breaking old habits and forming new ones.
The organization of debating clubs, glee clubs, or orchestras in the class does much to establish a bond of sympathy among the pupils and between the teacher and the pupils. Talks by principals and visitors; musicales, recitations and theatricals go a long way toward the assimilation process. Sight-seeing trips to different parts of the city, to theatres and to libraries furnish excellent themes for conversation. Stereopticon lectures should be given whenever possible to impart information and to furnish topics of conversation. We can not afford to disregard the social life of the foreigner. Let his social education begin in the evening school make the school a social center where he can come and bring his friends and feel that it in part belongs to him. Before anyone is acceptable to society he must be socially fit. The evening school can become a vital factor in socializing the immigrant.