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specifically prepared text was an imperative condition of success, and he did see that teaching by long distance methods was feasible, far in advance of others. The late President Harper, who was intimately associated with him at Chautauqua, transported bodily, I believe, his long distance teaching institution to Chicago, and made it one of the five main divisions in the organization of the University of Chicago. Yet this did not get really far away from the idea of "the extension of university teaching." For the university remained still an esoteric institution committed essentially to an aristocracy of scholarship. It still must be conceived of in terms of the vertical.

In 1906 came another epoch-making event when President Van Hise declared that responsibility for the dissemination of accumulated knowledge in assimilable form for all people was an equal function of the modern university, with that of residence teaching and original research. Not that research was not done in the university before Von Humboldt or popular dissemination of the results of research not practised before Van Hise, but rather that these men clearly saw and established institutionally what they perceived.

With the erection of the Extra-Mural College in the university organization--the third function of the university--comes the open recognition of the social mission of the university parallel with its intellectual mission; and that is of profoundest importance in our deliberations on extramural teaching at this conference.

But I must briefly characterize, in an introductory and explanatory way, the forms in which I conceive the essential types of extra-mural teaching, considered in functional interpretation. These are four-fold.

ist. The concept of the school as the functioning instrument. This idea is so familiar thru intra-mural teaching that the mere suggestion of the class and lecture room, laboratories and seminars will suffice to set the function off by itself. In extra-mural teaching the transfer of this

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concept into another field is readily made, and will engage the consideration of this paper.

2nd. The concept of the rostrum or platform as the functioning instrument. Probably older than the idea of the school, this instrument has not held the consecutive place of importance in educational systems and development that one would expect. Nevertheless, upon this idea rests that system of teaching thru platform inspiration and interpretation that has been a profound educational influence among all peoples in all ages. The pulpit and lyceum of New England and the “stump" and platform of the south, have been powerful factors of leadership in American life, and suggest to the university great possibilities for genuine educational service on this basis.

3d. The concept of the open forum for debate and discussion as a functioning instrument. Wherever civilization has made any great and lasting advances there the forum has had a large part. Greek and Roman civilization, medievalism, Anglo-Saxon free speech, the American practise of debate and discussion point here to an institution worthy for a foundation upon which to erect a noble system of adult education hitherto not recognized. To the late Frank A. Hutchins belongs the credit for clearness of vision and insight which foresaw the establishment of a new channel of leadership and information, direct, intimate and untrammeled from the latest and most authoritative sources of scholarship in the university to the humblest member in our democracy. It is a profound instrument of potential teaching, thru guidance and leadership, of great far-reaching significance, and must remain an unbiased well-spring for the learner so long as the search for truth remains unbiased in the university.

4th. The concept of the office as an instrument of instruction. This is a newer institution and belongs essentially to modern industrial society, where organization and supervision have become so important. In public education we have had the idea of teaching by this method thru school inspection and accrediting, and in civil government thru the organization and supervision of departments and bureaus of education. In private institutions this system of teaching may in a somewhat different sense be exempli fied in the press, which in recent years has held keen competition with the platform. As I see it, however, it can only realize its normal and permanent educational status when established in a setting of a faculty of scholars, and out of this develop a genuine system of extra-mural teaching thru itinerant institutes, traveling exhibits, specialized bureaus and informational service.

With this introduction for the necessary setting of the specific form of extra-mural teaching, which I am to consider, namely, that of the direct teacher-pupil, masterlearner relationship, generally thought of in terms of the school, I turn now to that institution. The school in extramural teaching at once suggests to every one the correspondence school. Therefore, a correspondence-study department or division is the natural term to employ.

Correspondence-study teaching has in the past generation of its usage come to possess a very definite meaning in the common language of the people. Of course, it has hitherto primarily meant teaching by mail. But it has also, at the same time, conveyed the idea of the direct tutor pupil relationship in contrast with mass teaching in the conventional class or lecture room. This at once connotes adjustment to individual and vocational needs, flexibility for adjustment not only to individual gifts and attainments but to environmental limitations of the student. And it suggests elasticity sufficient to become informal, when that is necessary.

Such commonly associated characteristics make it exceedingly simple for even the most untrained prospective student to see that when this form of teaching is applied in other ways than by mail, such for example as in class groups, it presumably contains there, too, the same characteristics which were associated with the term in mail instruction. Inasmuch as the purpose of extra-mural education is in its inception a democratic undertaking, it is important that the popular appeal shall connote something fairly definite and appreciable. This is exactly what the term Correspondence-School does.

does. Therefore, it would be very impracticable and unwise, in my judgment, to invent a new term which to us might perhaps more exactly express what we wish to include, and perhaps exclude, when yet in fact the new term would, on the other hand, have little or no meaning to a great number whom we should like to interest, serve and benefit. In this paper, therefore, I use Correspondence-Study Department as a term synonymous with the school function in extra-mural teaching. It should include all systematic, consecutive, continuous and record-keeping instruction in which we have the direct relationship of teacher and student, master and learner, or the tutorial relationship.

The form of such instruction may be divided into that which is formal in procedure, such as (1) the consecutive series of lessons given thru the mail entirely or (2) when these lessons are given in a class group, either in the shop, business office, local school, library, or district extension office of a local community in which the student resides, or (3) where the procedure combines the previous two forms in any degree of predominance of the one over the other, but in the relation of supplementation. Further, in the class work of extra-mural teaching there may be two forms, the one committed essentially to the lesson assignment plan, using correspondence-study instruction papers or texts or their equivalent, and the other the class lecturestudy plan, with its lectures of interpretation and instruction combined with quiz and class work, and assigned studies.

In the informal procedure, which in my judgment should be subordinate, we have courses for readers, and guided study outline studies for groups and clubs. cedure the reports are optional and not standardized, and the instruction may proceed thru a season without any reports whatsoever from the student or group. From the point of view of effective, constructive leadership and

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real teaching this may be quite unsatisfactory. On the other hand, the development of this procedure holds large possibilities for a guiding educational relationship with very busy people and with certain organizations, such as civic and study clubs, and women's organizations. The informal procedure when applied to advanced study may organize and simplify certain forms of graduate study in absentia.

But after all, in a college or university it is its faculty that makes it what it is. Those tendencies of college and university government and administration which tend to regard the faculty as a subordinate factor in the life of the institution—the employes of the board of governorsis an absolute misconception and misrepresentation of the character of a college or university. The institution is what its faculty is capable of making it. The faculty quality determines its rank.

In extra-mural teaching this is particularly evident. As already pointed out, this work is no longer to be considered as “the extension of university teaching" in the common interpretation of the term, but a new and enlarged institutional function. The university too is an evolving institution.

The extra-mural teacher must possess a very different combination of qualities than that usually required of the intra-mural teacher, and these are qualities and gifts neither inferior or superior, as I take it, but different, and I wish to add that the extra-mural teacher must genuinely feel that he is performing a work as fine, dignified and as well worth while as any work done by the university. The extra-mural teacher in addition to scholarly attainment must be essentially an artist. The productive results of the work of scholarship are one thing, the productive results of the creative teacher, who has the gift and cultivated the art, is quite another. In extra-mural teaching must be created the method, the technique, the atmosphere which shall give the university a new meaning in democracy. For him it is to solve the difficult problems con

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