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it possible for the work both in diagnosis and treatment to be carried out much more thoroly than even in the larger English cities. A number of special studies have been reported in the series, including Pulmonary Tuberculosis in School Children, Eyes and Vision, and Physical Training. Here, as in the English report, there is a distinct contribution in the careful study of nutrition defects. The following scale, worked out by Dr. MacKenzie, is a most effective observational test, as its adoption in a number of the most important investigations in New York City and in the work of the Division of Child Hygiene in that city's Department of Health attests:

(1). "Excellent" means the nutrition of a healthy child of good social standing.

(2) Children whose nutrition just falls short of this standard are “good.”

(3) Children “requiring supervision" are on the borderland of serious impairment.

(4) Children "requiring medical treatment" are those whose nutrition is seriously impaired.


The health and physique of school children-By Arthur Greenwood. London: P. S. King & Son.

The standards of achievement and record established in the reports reviewed above have made possible Professor Greenwood's survey of the measurements of 800,000 school children-one-seventh of the membership of the elementary schools of England and Wales. The largest study that preceded this was that published by the British Association in 1883 including something over 40,000 children-about five per cent of the present inquiry. The reports used are those of 1908, 1909 and 1910, with some material from those of 1911.

The objects in mind are stated as follows:

(1) To determine the average height and weight of the public elementary school children of England and Wales at each age from three to fifteen years.

(2) To compare the physique (as measured by height and weight) of children of one district with those of another. (3) To enable school medical officers to compare the development of the child population of the same district at different periods.

There is a very clear chapter on The Method of Working, which includes an excellent summary of the various indexes of nutrition in use. Much work has been done in England and on the Continent in studies of these means of organizing diagnosis.

The results of the investigation are found in two chapters giving for boys and girls from 3 to '15 years of age the average height and weight, the average value of weight divided by height and the values of an interesting index less affected

100 3VW by race,

Other results have reference to

H differences of sex and of urban and rural life; the physique of children in industrial areas, of "half-time” laborers, "poorer” and more “prosperous” homes.

Chapter V deals with The Health of School Children and takes up the extent of physical defect, its relation to age; the effect of adenoids, enlarged tonsils and defective teeth on physique; the extent and causes of malnutrition, its relation to poverty and child labor. A very satisfactory showing is made of the beneficial results of the school medical service, including school feeding, in Bradford.

The appendices give the tables worked out for the various areas with comparative data from America and Scotland.

The limitations of the material are recognized and three forms of type are used to represent the degree of reliability of the final index numbers.

The influence of this study is already evident in some of the 1914 reports which have appeared since its publication.



For the series known as Educational Psychology Monographs, Professor Whipple, of Cornell University, has translated from the German The psychological methods of testing intelligence, by William Stearn, of Breslau. This book is well known in Germany and to psychologists generally. It is a real service to make it available for Englishreading and English-speaking students. (Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1915. 160 p. $1.25.)

$ A collection of records of some careful experiments on young school children is contained in Children's perceptions, by W. H. Winch, Inspector of Schools for the London County Council. It is Mr. Winch's endeavor to follow up the suggestions of Binet and Stern in the field of child psychology and to make an original contribution to experimental pedagogy. The author has done this and has done it well. (Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1915. 246 p. $1.50.)

The reader of A student history of education, by Dean Frank P. Graves, of the University of Pennsylvania, will be struck by the arrangement of the book, by its practicality and by its very novel and interesting illustrations. The student could almost gain a satisfactory knowledge of the history of educational practise from examining carefully the illustrations which Dean Graves has brought together. For normal schools and teachers' training classes this is the best book of its kind. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1915. 453 p. $1.50.)

Each year we welcome the Year book of the universities of the Empire and the issue for 1915 is no less valuable as a book of reference than its predecessors. It is worth noting that the editor of this volume, Mr. W. H. Dawson, enlisted in the British army at the outbreak of the European war and that the volume has been put thru the press by his associates. (London: Herbert Jenkins, 1915. 75. 6d.)

Mr. Guy Kendall, a Master at Charterhouse, has collected typical English verse for school use in The Greyfriar book of English verse. (New York: Longmans, Green & Company, 1915. 172 p. 60 cents.)

Superintendent Alderman, of Portland, Oregon, has made a little book out of his observations and experiences in a


very practical field with the title School credit for home work. What Superintendent Alderman has in mind is the development of a real cooperative relationship between home and school and the bringing of the home into a sense of responsibility for its share in the educational processes. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1915. 181 p. $1.00.)

Very few persons can ever remember how they learned to read, and most persons will wonder how they ever managed so difficult a process when they study Teaching to read, by Miss Nellie E. Turner, of the Slippery Rock, Pa., normal school. In fact, her book is very practical and most carefully worked out, but it does make reading seem an art almost impossible to master. (New York: American Book Company, 1915. 528 p. $1.00.)

There has been a falling off of late in the amount of attention given to Froebel and to Herbart, but we are glad to see Froebel as a pioneer in modern psychology, by E. R. Murray. As a matter of fact, Froebel was not much of a pioneer in modern psychology, as that phrase is technically understood, but he had a shrewd and almost uncanny insight into the significance of the processes of the child mind. (Baltimore: Warwick

& York, 1915.

224 p.

. $1.25.)

In the Columbia University Contributions to Education there have recently appeared three serious and scholarly studies, namely, The Chinese system of public education, by Dr. Ping Wen Kuo; Educational guidance, by Dr. Truman Lee Kelley; and Variations in the achievements of pupils, by Dr. Charles H. Elliott. (New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1915. 189p. $1.50. 116.p. $2.00.

114 p. $1.25.) Dr. Edwin G. Cooley, formerly superintendent of schools in Chicago, has done most admirable and thoro work in The study of vocational and industrial education abroad with a view to securing to this country some of the benefits of foreign experience. Political conditions in Chicago and the State of Illinois have thus far frustrated the best efforts of himself and those associated with him in their attempts

to improve conditions in that part of the United States. The political machine which regards schools as providing places for salaried teachers rather than for educable pupils has up to this time been too much for him. These reflections are inspired by reading the second volume of Dr. Cooley's Vocational education in Europe, a striking and thoro piece of work. The famous people's high schools in Denmark are described in detail as is the agricultural work in Ireland, Holland and Prussia. (Chicago: The Commercial Club, 1915. 177 p.)

When one sees the immense mass of published material relating to written English and to instruction in that subject, he can not help asking cui bono? How is it that with all the thought and attention that are being devoted to instruction in English, and particularly to training in writing, the average man or woman remains so uninformed, so slovenly and so inaccurate? We have before us English composition for college freshmen, a very admirable book, evidently the outgrowth of practical experience, written by two members of the department of English in Delaware College, Messrs. Wilbur O. Sipherd and George E. Dutton. It would seem that a book like this and scores of similar ones ought to begin to produce some visible results in the newspaper press and in the daily correspondence of persons who have had school and college training. (Newark, Del.: Privately printed. 154 p.)

A book that may be used either for reference or for casual reading and that will be found satisfying for either purpose, is English prose and verse, by Henry S. Pancoast. Mr. Pancoast has brought together very carefully chosen specimens of the most significant English writing from the time of the Beowulf to Stevenson. (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1915. 816 p. $1.35.)

Another collection of material for reading, but this time from American literature, is Readings from American literature, by Miss Mary E. Calhoun, of the Leete School, and Miss Emma MacAlarney, of the Horace Mann High School. We are particularly glad to notice in the collection some of

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