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The social features of the meeting added greatly to its

The reception rooms (usually the junior commons room at Christ Church) with their comfortably furnished reference library, the pantry with tea, buns and cakes to sustain the inner man in the morning or afternoon, two excellent musicales, a delightful garden party at Worcester College, visits to the colleges under the guidance of a warden or a fellow, the opportunity of meeting all sorts of people interested in the same subject, these are only a few of the side issues of such a meeting.

In addition to the subject matter of the lectures, some of which was a summary of views already published, some of which was presented here for the first time, the personal element seemed to me particularly valuable. There is no denying the power of the winged word, and to see in the flesh those whom one knew only thru their writings or to become acquainted with the personalities of those whose works one shall read in future counts for a good deal.

But the outstanding feature was the permanent value
of Hellenism, not only in its special manifestations discust
in the various lectures but in the mental attitude for which
Hellenism stands. It was a time of clarifying of ideas,
clearing away of prejudices and of looking forward with
high hopes to the future. There was a strong realization
of the great opportunity for a regenerated England which
can be achieved only by facing facts as the Greeks did.
Intellectual honesty, purifying of emotions, a gallant spirit
which may be bruised and battered but can not be defeated,
a higher courage: all these will bring success and Greece
alone can teach them.
"Had He not turned us in His hand, and thrust

Our high things low and shook our hills as dust,
We had not been this splendor."

This is what the spirit of Hellas means to those who need her.

IDA CARLETON THALLON VASSAR COLLEGE

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VIII

REVIEWS The Meaning of education — By NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER. New York:

Charles Scribner's Sons, 1915. 385 p. $1.50. This volume of 385 pages, containing addresses by the author to various associations, is an enlargement and complete revision of the author's earlier volume (1898) under the same title. This edition contains fourteen

papers not included in the former volume. Taken together, they constitute an admirable treatise on the great problems of education. Of the fourteen new chapters, six are remarkable not only for the grasp over conditions, but also for the practical and philosophical insight exhibited in the treatment. These are: Five Evidences of an Education; Training for Vocation and for Avocation; Standard in Which the Great Problems of Efficiency and Standardization are Discust from the Principles Involved; Waste in Education; The Secondary School Program; The American College and the American University. The other addresses are timely and bear definitely upon other great questions before the educational world.

In this age when so-called reformers are busier than ever, when principles seem to be forgotten, when school and college officials are hastening madly to put into effect phases of treatment which do not have even the questionable value of novelty, it is refreshing to read the appeal to reason, the clear definitions, the exact and clear statement of conditions underlying the problems in educating children and youth. Notwithstanding the existence of a large cult who have ceased to think, and of many who pride themselves on never having read a serious book; notwithstanding the large penumbra who merely fill a hypocritical hiatus in the profession, there are many teachers

and many parents who will welcome and profit from a careful reading of this little volume. It is sound in its philosophy, accurate in its reasoning, catholic in its treatment, and should be in the library of every parent and of every man or woman who is brought in contact with educational problems.

FRANK A. FITZPATRICK Boston, Mass.

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Annual report for 1914 of the Chief Medical Officer of the Board of Educa

tion, England and Wales. London: Wyman & Sons, 1914. is. 3d. There is great need in America of some central body which will serve to coordinate school medical inspection and so make it more effective. Even the more important medical libraries are not stocked up in this department and we have no journal which keeps the school and medical groups informed upon the situation and its needs. Sir George Newman's work as Chief Medical Officer of England and Wales is the best example of the most suggestive lines of development. He has the advantage of centralized authority but with equal insight into the problem this authority ought to be possible in American state organizations and by conscious cooperation the desired ends should be attainable in the nation.

The 1914 report is the seventh in the series registering a growth which received one of its greatest impulses in the conditions found among candidates for service in the Boer War. Other lessons are coming out of the present conflict. "The present time, when the nation is closely engaged in various ways in the affairs of the European War, is not suitable either for the writing or the study of lengthy official reports on subjects of domestic and civil administration. Yet I am satisfied that, in spite of this national preoccupation, no apology is needed for recording in as full and particular a manner as circumstances allow, the constructive and positive work now undertaken in regard to child welfare. The European War, with its terrible burden of destruction and loss of life, makes more rather than less necessary the preservation and nurture of child

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life. Indeed, it is probably true to say that there is now no ultimate need of the state greater, more imperative, or more urgent than that of securing the health and physical efficiency of the rising generation, with a view to its allround practical education. In this undertaking there are, under present circumstances, three points for consideration. First, there is the loss of life to be made good by a proportionate saving of the lives of infants and children; secondly, there is the necessity of providing effective and prompt remedy of the defects and diseases shown to be existent in a large number of these children; and, thirdly, the physical condition of the children as a whole, and the mental capacity and moral character dependent upon it or related to it, calls insistently for fuller and more careful attention."

The report is concerned with the school medical service, “an ever-expanding organization of investigation and research, of child welfare, of school hygiene, and of preventive and curative medicine.”

The reader is imprest by the scope of the service. The defects considered are much the same as those usually taken into account but there is a strong centering in an estimate of general health under the heading of nutrition. Possibly no one has done more than Sir George to bring forces to bear upon that central citadel of physical deterioration and loss—malnutrition. Uncleanliness also is taken out of the customary list and given the prominence it de

In both of these instances the registering of the degree of nutrition and cleanliness of all children examined affords a better view of the problem than can be had by a mere enumeration of defects.

These matters connect closely with the home and the work of the remarkable voluntary agencies. The chain is nearly complete. Infant consultations, schools for mothers, mothercraft for girls, day nurseries and crèches care for the milk period and with the newer nursery schools are reaching over to bridge the gap in that pre-school age recently stated to be not yet upon the sociological map.

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The presence of parents at the physical examinations runs over seventy per cent at some ages and as high as fifty for the children leaving school. It is felt that the result of instruction given on these occasions is of as much importance as are the examinations themselves.

The relationship to other sections of the school and to other branches of municipal and state service is recognized and emphasized thru the agency of attendance officers, the development of physical training, the training of teachers, the provision of meals, the examination of candidates for working certificates, the development of clinics and dispensaries.

On pages 14 to 16 there are valuable tables showing an attempt to give a charting of the whole situation in so far as it has relation to mental and physical defects. A census is attempted which includes the blind, deaf, epileptic, physically defective, mentally deficient and dull or backward children.

A few years ago encouragement was given to local officers to undertake special inquiries. This year over forty such studies are listed (p. 8-9). Many of these make substantial contributions to the subjects under investigation and no doubt all of them have been of real value in raising the standards of the workers concerned. For 1915 the subject of adenoids was recommended in order to center activity and for 1916 malnutrition has been assigned. An extended outline of this subject is given on p. 7-8.

The report lacks an index but there is a comprehensive table of contents and foot-note references to similar sections of previous reports.

Annual report on the medical inspection of the school children in Dumfer

line-By ALISTER MACKENZIE. Edinburgh: Turnbull & Spears, 1914. A most valuable outcome of Mr. Carnegie's benevolence is registered in the annual reports of the Carnegie Dumferline Trust.

In many respects the general organization of this service is not unlike that described in the report of the English Chief Medical Officer, but more adequate funds have made

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