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with many examples of pungent Irish wit. The dean of British historians, or shall we say classicists, who numbers so many famous men among his pupils, calls himself an old-fashioned man with old-fashioned views but the eternal youth of Hellas still flows in his veins.

The historical background of the meeting was provided by the six lectures on Aspects and Epochs of Greek History, by the Master of University, Dr. Macan. They gave a brilliant summary of the history from The Making of Greece to the Greeks of the Byzantine Empire. This, as the lecturer himself admitted, was a task enough to daunt the stoutest heart but it was a most instructive demonstration of how to select the essential from the non-essential, to give a clear-cut outline of the successive steps in the progress of the Greek race, omitting no significant feature and never for a moment wandering in the labyrinth of detail as is so easily done by those who have lost the guiding thread of directness. Those of us who knew his monumental edition of Herodotus with its wealth of erudition combined with brilliant literary gifts anticipated a great deal, but when we add to this the personal magnetism of the lecturer, the flashes of wit, the charm of presentation, the enthusiasm for the subject, we can truly say it was a real inspiration to his hearers. The real reason why I went to the meeting was to hear Dr. Macan and Professor Murray; all the rest of the lectures were clear gain, but for either the Master or Mr. Murray alone it would have been worth risking all the submarines in the ocean.

The other historical course was given by Mr. Marriott and entitled The Commonwealth and the Citizen. To most of us the lecturer was better known from books in his own special field of modern history and political theory, but this course based upon Aristotle's Politics was a striking example of how every scholar in England who deserves the name, whatever his special field, has a sound basis of classical training. Mr. Marriott would not be the historian he is unless the history and politics of Greece were an integral part of himself. This course was a comparative study of ancient and modern politics and only went to show how most of our so-called essentially modern problems, not only in the field of political theory, but in the practical study of international relations, militarism, communism, property, socialism, education and all matters depending for their final solution on the neat adjustment between the state and the individual, were attacked and discust by the Greeks whose success in solving the insoluble was in many respects no more or no less than our own. We certainly can not say that the social conscience in Greece was any less active than our own altho its sense of responsibility has manifested itself in a somewhat different way at the present time. The ethical basis of political life on which so much stress is laid by Aristotle, leads us by an easy transition to the course of lectures on Greek Ethics, chiefly Aristotle, by Mr. Delisle Burns who is probably known as a lecturer to many in this country. Virtue, character, the ideal man, right action were some of the topics presented, and informal discussions were held after the lectures. Three lectures were given on Plato by the Reverend William Temple (son of the late archbishop of Canterbury and himself formerly head master of Repton College, one of the most brilliant of the younger minds in the Church of England), the last of which was on the relation of Platonism and Christianity. The Neoplatonists with special reference to Plotinus formed the subject of three lectures by the Dean of St. Paul's (Dr. Inge) the foremost English authority on the subject. Stoics and Epicureans were dealt with by Professor Murray, who in presenting the first part of his material said that he was in the dilemma of repeating his lecture on The Stoic Philosophy (which was written after his agreement to give this lecture and which most of us have probably had the delight of reading) or else of leaving out all the things he had thought important. The Epicurean philosophy was treated with the same sympathetic appreciation, particularly the charming picture of the Epicurean's ideal sheltered garden in which he lived surrounded by his friends. In the sphere of religion there were two lectures by the Rector of Exeter, Dr. Farnell, on Greek Mysteries and Apollo Worship. The mysteries were studied as being more akin to our own religious experience than most other Greek forms and as preparing the way for a new religion when it was proclaimed. The religion of Apollo stood at the opposite pole from mysticism and is the most typical manifestation of the anthropomorphism of the polis.

In Part I Professor Murray gave three lectures on the Greek Epic. Starting from the position already familiar to readers of the Rise of the Greek Epic, he visualized for us the heroic age which he said the bards idealized, filling the poems with the spirit of joy in life, in loving things as they are, taking them as they come and liking them as a whole. If, he said, we could feel, in spite of underground railways, dictating letters and paying bills, that life as a whole was a thing we loved we might have one fundamental condition for building up poetry like Homer's. The bards loved their material and reverenced it as something greater than themselves and showed the spirit of which Euripides (himself at discord with the world) says “the song-maker whatever songs he bears should bear rejoicing.”

The three lectures on The Religious Significance of the Greek Tragedians, by Dr. Wicksteed were a study in the evolution of religious ideas; Aeschylus and social evolution in the development of the conceptions of justice and punishment, Sophocles who treated mythology as dramatic material with special reference to fate and the development of human character, and Euripides—the sub-title of which lecture was Anthropomorphic Mythology, its dangers and how to escape them who can not separate the stories from his own spiritual life nor can he keep his characters in the plane of ethical and spiritual development to which the stories belong. In other words the myths have been intellectually overgrown and there is therefore protest, but if we take the gods as representing vital impulses much in the legends may become significant.

Professor Murray's five lectures on Greek Tragedy which came in Part II began with a discussion of the nature of tragedy to which the closest parallels are the medieval sacred plays founded on the actual church liturgies. Tragedy is the passion play of Dionysus in the person of the Year-God or Eniautos-Daimon. This view is familiar to most students of Greek Drama in the lecturer's Euripides and His Age (Chapter III) and in his Excursus in Miss Harrison's Themis (pp. 341-363). In the earliest tragedy -which was illustrated by a detailed discussion of the Suppliant Women-we are but little removed from ritual in form and subject. In the Agamemnon the dramatic spirit has got free from ritual altho one can find religious archeology in that play. A careful study was made of the Agamemnon with special reference to the psychology of Clytemnestra who seems temporarily to have been possest with the very spirit of vengeance and at the end wakes like a person from a dream. The Choephoroi, Oedipus Tyrannus, and the two Electras were discust in detail to bring out the reference not to the individual characters in each play but to the whole world, not to the things that pass but the things that are eternal. In closing, Professor Murray said that he had looked forward to the course with dismay in the face of the difficulty of getting his thoughts off existing conditions, but that he owed a debt of gratitude because he had refound the real things of Greek drama. That was the spirit of the meeting, the rediscovery of the things which made life worth while in spite of all.

Two very fine readings of Professor Murray's versions of The Trojan Women and Iphigenia among the Taurians were given by Mrs. Penelope Wheeler.

The three lectures on Greek comedy by Mr. Bloor extended from the development of Greek comedy by Aristophanes, to the transition to later comedy. In the first of these, excellent use was made of the scene in Plato's Symposium between Socrates and Aristophanes, then the earlier political comedies were taken up in relation to contemporary events, The Clouds and The Frogs formed the chief subject of the second lecture, then came the Birds, “a sort of comic Utopia” and Plutus with the transition to later comedy which owed more to Euripides than to Aristophanes. Mr. Bloor has a delightful sense of humor and made Aristophanes live again for his hearers; with this he, like Aristophanes, combines a delicate poetic fancy and his translations of some of the lyrics were particularly charming

One more phase of Greek literature was taken up in Mr. Livingstone's two lectures on Oratory and Greek Prose Style in which particularly interesting comparisons were made with later ideals of eloquence. The creation of prose style was one of the greatest achievements of the Greeks and the lecturer lamented the lack of adequate attention to style in England as compared to France. He quoted a French critic of a brilliant work who said “this for an English book is well written." I wonder what he would have said of the average American book!

The two courses of lectures on art made an interesting contrast. Three in Part I were by Mr. J. B. S. Holborn on The Meaning of Greek Art and Beauty. They were very theoretical and somewhat rhapsodic but the lecturer can not have failed to arouse by means of his own enthusiasm a vivid impression of the difference of the meaning of beauty to the Greeks and to us of this present often hideously ugly world. The four lectures in Part II by Professor Percy Gardner on The Greek Temple, Types of Gods and Men, Ionic and Doric sculpture, and Greek Coins were the authoritative views of the foremost English authority on the subjects. Professor Gardner, as we have long known from his writings, knows how to keep his feet on the solid ground of facts and at the same time to interpret with sympathy and balanced appreciation the higher aspects of the Greek genius as embodied in plastic form.

There is no space to speak in detail of many other lectures in which the influence of the Greeks was traced on French or English literature and on various fields of science, notably in a masterly discussion of medicine by Sir William Osler.

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