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And the making of markets and the creation of trade are plainly matters of the understanding of conditions.

The development of a school of the type of the Boston High School of Commerce demonstrates how the modernizing tendency in education towards the practical has extended beyond the problems of production contemplated in technological education and has sought to meet the problems of distribution by applying educational forces as means to ends under the newer aspect of educational specialization which has come to be known as commercial education; or more properly, education for commerce. This latter term better distinguishes it from the older socalled commerical courses, long misnomers in the curriculums of many high schools. For commercial education as understood by modern educators deals primarily with the economics of distribution.

That educational opportunities of this type are made available indicates the appreciation upon the part of educators of the increasing demands that are made upon the abilities of business men by the changing character of commercial affairs. The past two decades may be said to have witnessed changes that make necessary an entirely new order of ability in business life and demand a superior training. These changes mean much more than mere growth of commercial operations or great increase in the amount of capital employed in business enterprises. They are fundamental changes in conditions and methods. These conditions have brought problems for the solution of which experience furnishes no precedents. To solve them there is needed a grounding in principles, and an understanding of broad underlying laws. The modern business leader besides needing a sound education in order that he may think clearly, needs the ability to accurately trace effect to cause; he needs a training that will enable him to understand and to meet the new conditions constantly presenting themselves under new and varying aspects.

Naturally, the type of education for commerce to meet

these demands must be planned upon broad lines. Sound education of whatever type to be worthy of the name must produce fully developed men, and this must be true of education which would contemplate fitting men for a commercial life, quite as well as of education that prepares for the older professional careers.

And education for commerce proposes to effect as full an intellectual development as any secondary school course, tho utilizing as a basis of that development the purely and allied commercial branches. It sets for itself certain ideals such as the cultivation of intellectual power, and what is quite as difficult and important, the acquisition of ability to apply power.

But modern education for commerce does not overlook the fundamental requirements of training common to all proper systems of developing the human mind. It does not propose relinquishing the training instruments of admitted excellence and employing only commercial courses or courses of merely informational character.

Thus we may understand the new type of education for commerce to be an education that trains broadly in an understanding of the economics of distribution as applied to trade and commerce, while at the same time giving a wide training in general culture. Its purpose is to give a broad cultural training together with special equipment for commercial leadership.

More definitely stated, education for commerce as a subject for secondary school specialization is instruction which aims to inculcate the principles which govern trade and mercantile transactions. It does not mean the turning out of an expert, but a training in the essential rudiments which will make young men more capable to fill positions in the business world.

It must be a training sound educationally. A school of commerce of the new type can not be a duplicate or competitor of the old so-called business or commercial college of private proprietorship, incomplete and indefinite in scope. A school of commerce as a branch of a public school system, in order to win and hold the favor of educa

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tors and of its business community, must do more than merely send out clerks and good stenographers and good bookkeepers. Mercantile and manufacturing pursuits are today the channels into which a great number of young men put their energies, and it is naturally the endeavor of educators to prepare them as best they can to enable them to meet their life work with more courage and to make the best of their opportunities.

In a manner similar to that in which the general high school aims to give that general training which is common and desirable to members of all the professions; just as a manual training high school does not undertake to prepare students to be carpenters, machinists or engineers, but does aim to give that general training which is common to all the various branches of skilled manual labor; so a high school of commerce does not undertake to turn out a merchant, a banker, or an expert in transportation or in insurance; but it aims to give a training and a body of knowledge which may be found equally useful in any of these and similar occupations.

A secondary school curriculum based upon these ideas, worked out in detail by competent administrators and executives and taught by experienced teachers, may be expected to furnish an education for commerce of the modern conception.

This is the type of education for commerce which the Boston Public High School of Commerce is exemplifying. Since it is a new work extending into fields as yet affording but little in the way of educational models, this school is plainly engaged in a work of leadership among secondary schools. To an extent this school is showing the way in this comparatively new direction of educational endeavor. Naturally and wisely, it has taken to itself whatever seemed of proven worth in the short experiences of the few schools which have attempted similar work. Already it has contributed much that has been notable and significant. Now, established in its own especially designed school plant, it naturally comes into the possession of opportunities conducive to the realization of new and even great possibilities in the service of both modern specialized secondary education and of a greater commercial Boston.

JAMES DREY BOSTON, Mass.

THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITY

PROFESSORS
To the Editor of the EDUCATIONAL REVIEW:

May I, as a long-time reader and a sometime correspondent of the EDUCATIONAL REVIEW, invite attention to an interesting article on an important phase of education which appeared in a recent number of The Nation, published in New York?

Something more than a year ago there was organized, with the best wishes of everyone, an American Association of University Professors. Its declared objects were admirable and it set out to accomplish them with some vigor. My attention and that of others with whom I have spoken was attracted by the fact that at its first meeting this association voted formally to exclude from its membership those university professors who are either temporarily or permanently occupying administrative posts. It was my feeling at the time that this action was unwise; that it attempted to draw a distinction of interest where none existed; and that it would probably result in the early demise of the new and hopefully started association. Our excellent university professors are not, as a rule, blest with very much capacity to transact even the most ordinary business, parliamentary or other, and they are certain to get into deep water and into serious trouble if they exclude from their councils those of their number who, having shown special competence for the transaction of business and the organization of educational work, have been assigned to tasks of that kind.

The unfortunate results that must naturally follow from the action taken by this association at its first meeting have evidently followed much sooner than was expected by anyone. This is made evident by the article in The Nation to which reference has been made. It is signed by William MacDonald who is, I think, a professor of history at an eastern college or university, possibly at Brown.

After pronouncing the second annual meeting of the American Association of University Professors, held at Washington, December 31-January 1, a disappointment on the ground that the choice of both the place and the time of meeting was open to serious objection, and that the attendance at the meetings was depressingly small, Professor MacDonald goes on to say “the business meeting, occupying two of the three sessions, resembled nothing so much as the fabled moment of creation, when the earth was without form, and void, and when darkness was upon the face of the deep. The officers of the Association, whose industry and devotion no one could question, had apparently allowed themselves to become so engrost with the issue of academic freedom as to leave them no time for proper consideration of the interests of the Association as a whole. The minutes of the first annual meeting, upon whose record the proper treatment of important matters depended, could not be found when called for. A form of constitution, reported by a committee to which it had been referred a year ago for 'stylistic revision,' was hurriedly accepted, notwithstanding the fact that discussion of it revealed serious omissions, obscurities, and inconsistencies. A number of recommendations from the council were so loosely framed as to make it difficult either to appraise or to act upon them; while the entire list of nominations for council membership, printed and distributed to members in advance of the meeting, had to be withdrawn, the secretary explaining that they were all unconstitutional. If timehonored parliamentary procedure could have attended in the form of an embodied spirit, it would have fled in chagrin at the recklessness with which its most elementary principles were overridden."

"Such criticism might properly be withheld if nothing more were involved than an amiable informality of pro

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