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and the student of English sounds can not neglect the many changes which have taken place in the so-called Modern English period—which are still taking place today. The study of English sounds should therefore concern itself not only with the changes which occurred in the remoter historical period, but also with contemporary English usage. To this whole course of study Professor Wyld's book presents an admirable introduction, and the reviewer has dwelt upon the matter of sounds, not only because it is intrinsically the more important, but also because the discussion of sounds is the more interesting and original half of Professor Wyld's book. The treatment of inflections is adequate, but the student who is at home in the history of English sounds will not long find himself a stranger among English inflections.

GEORGE PHILIP KRAPP COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

It is worth while noting that the most scholarly and original studies in English constitutional history have recently come from French scholars. We heartily welcome the volume Studies supplementary to Stubbs constitutional history by M Petit-Dutaillis, honorary professor in the University of Lille and rector of the Academy of Grenoble. This volume deals with the intensely interesting subject of the forest in medieval England and with the rising of 1381. It is the work of a genuine and highly trained historical scholar. (Manchester: The University Press, 1914. 316 p. 4s.)

Another piece of patient and cautious scholarship with far-reaching usefulness is the book entitled Pre-Reformation scholars in Scotland in the XVI century by W. Forbes Leith, S. J. The author has taken as his text the following sentence from Sir William Hamilton: “The list of Scottish scholars driven from the land at the Reformation for their attachment to the Roman Catholic faith would form an exceedingly interesting chapter of Scottish literary history." Mr. Forbes Leith has proved this to be true. (Glasgow: James MacLehose & Sons, 1915. The Macmillan Company, American agents. 156 p. $2.50.)

Still another highly interesting and important book on the Middle Ages is An introduction to the economic history of England by E. Lipson of Trinity College, Cambridge. Mr. Lipson has been able to use material and records recently made available in this field of study and he traces with clearness the manorial organization, its break-up, the agrarian revolution, and the growth of towns and guilds in a way that is most unusually readable. We heartily commend the book to all students of economic history. (London: A. & C. Black, 1915. The Macmillan Company, ( American agents. 552 p. $2.50.)

Dr. Paul Carus, one of the most fertile of living authors, has just published a volume entitled Goethe, which he describes as a sympathetic study of one of the most notable men in the world's history. It may well be doubted whether there is available any other study of Goethe that is at once so good and so complete. (Chicago: The Open Court Publishing Company. 352 p. $3.00.)

American women in civic work is the title of a volume containing personal sketches of about a dozen women who have been more or less in the public eye of late. (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1915. 278 p. $1.00.)

A book which it behooves every serious-minded American who cares for his country's institutions and for the preservation of the opportunities which those institutions confer upon individual citizens, to read and seriously ponder, as well as one of the most striking books that has come from the press in many a day, is The reconciliation of government with liberty. The author is Professor John W. Burgess, so long professor of political science and constitutional law and dean of the graduate faculties, Columbia University. Professor Burgess' book is a veritable mine of scholarship and a fountain of practical wisdom. He reviews critically and fairly every step in the age-long development of the movement to secure effective government without crushing individual liberty under foot. Every class in political science should have this book in its hands and should

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study it chapter by chapter and page by page. (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 1915. 393 p. $2.50.)

A more elementary work in the field of political philosophy, but a very searching and constructive one, is The peoples, government by David Jayne Hill, formerly American ambassador at Berlin. Dr. Hill endeavors to set forth in simple language understanded of the people what is at stake in many of the current proposals to change the American form of government. His analysis of sovereignty and of law is as clear and as satisfying a piece of work as has been done in this field in many a day. Here, too, is a book which students of political science should study with thoro

(New York: D. Appleton & Sons, 1915. $1.50.)

Principal Frederick G. Reilly, of New York City, has made, a very simple, direct and helpful little book entitled, Rational athletics for boys. (Boston: D. C. Heath & Company. 125 p. 90 cents.)

Walter S. Hinchman, of Groton School, is the author of a History of English literature, intended to present facts of the narrative to students rather than to offer an interpretation of them. (New York: The Century Company, 1915. 455 p. $1.30.)

In the important series known as The Nation's Library, Joseph McCabe contributes the Principles of evolution, which is an effort to make more accurate and more clearly definite the customary uses of the applications of the term. (Baltimore: Warwick & York, 1915. 264 p. 40 cents.)

In Longman's Modern Mathematical Series three unusually attractive and excellent volumes have appeared. These are The teaching of algebra including trigonometry, by Professor T. Percy Nunn, of the University of London; Exercises in algebra, including trigonometry, in two parts by the same author; and Projective geometry, by Professor G. B. Mathews, of the University College of North Wales, at Bangor. (London: Longmans, Green & Company, 1915.)

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A really admirable account of the development of English economic life, simple enough to read in the secondary school and scholarly enough to be kept as a book of reference, is English industry and trade, by H. L. Burrows. (London: A. & C. Black, 1915. 208 p. 65 cents.)

Many attempts have been made to interpret the great artists for the general reader and not many of them have been more successful than the book entitled Sketches of great painters, by Edwin Watts Chubb, of Athens, Ohio. Mr. Chubb has a genuine understanding of the men of whom he writes and he makes them very real and very significant to others. (Cincinnati: Stewart & Kidd Company, 1915. 264 p. $1.00.)

One of the most striking personalities in the history of American Secondary education was the Rev. Dr. Henry Augustus Coit, the first rector of St. Paul's School of Concord, New Hampshire. For the first time there is available a faithful and inspiring record of Dr. Coit's life and work. The volume is entitled Henry Augustus Coit and the author is James Curtis Knox, a master at St. Paul's School and formerly a scholar there. Dr. Coit's intellectual and spiritual development are carefully and affectionately traced. To every friend of Dr. Coit and of St. Paul's School the volume is indispensable. It will be found most interesting reading by that large company who are profoundly interested in the influence of personality and education. (New York: Longmans, Green & Company, 1915. 150 p. $1.00.)

, In the Practical conduct of play, Henry S. Curtis, an indefatigable writer on this subject, has made a book to help and to instruct those who in different parts of the country are devoting themselves to play as an educational instrumentality. The book is a thoroly good one. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1915. 376 p. $2.00.)

To the older generation of Southerners there were few names so well known as that of Laurens. Dr. David D. Wallace of Wofford College has now compiled a very complete and most interesting Life of Henry Laurens in which his relation to the political developments at the close of the colonial and the beginning of the national period are carefully worked out. The book is interesting reading on its own account and is as well a genuine contribution to American political history. (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1915. 540 p. $3.50.)

An exceptionally interesting scientific book in an unfamiliar field is The alligator and its allies by Professor Reese of the West Virginia University. (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1915. 358 p. $2.50.) )

Another book that is scientific and at the same time popular, abounding in instruction, is Dr. William F. Hornaday's Wild life conservation. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1915.

240 p. $1.50.) A new elementary textbook in the zoological field is Economic zoology and entomology by Professors Kellogg and Doane of Stanford University. The arrangement is exceptionally good and the illustrative material wisely chosen. (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1915. 528 p. $1.50.)

Professors William S. Franklin and Barry MacNutt are the authors both of an Elementary electricity and magnetism and Advanced electricity and magnetism, planned for use of students of varying maturity and preparation in colleges and technical schools. The elementary book in particular strikes us as especially helpful. (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1915. 300 p. $2.00.

300 p. $2.00. 174 p. $1.25.) Some of the most effective investigations now being carried on in the field of physics is that of Professor W. H. Bragg of the University of Leeds and his son, W. L. Bragg of Trinity College, Cambridge. For their investigations, father and son received in 1915 the Barnard medal for scientific research which is awarded every fifth year by Columbia University on the recommendation of the National Academy of Sciences. Their latest publication is X-rays and crystal structure. (London: G. Bell & Sons, 1915.

, 230 p. 75. 6d.)

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