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so that a class may never find it monotonous. One day wo or three pages may be assigned for intensive work in Focabulary and construction, the teacher having carefully elected the passage for this purpose. Another day, five r six pages may be assigned for “reproduction;" that is, the pupil will give the contents in the foreign language. nother day, he may read ten or fifteen pages, being only equired to answer questions about the facts and events f the story. The teacher will find this latter a very favore form of exercise with the class and as the end of an ineresting book approaches, they will be ready and anxious 5 take longer and longer "reading lessons." Of course ading at sight in class must not be neglected, as it always terests the pupils and also gives the teacher an excellent Oportunity for judging of the progress they are making,

the growth of their vocabulary and the extent to which ey depend on the dictionary in preparing the work.

my opinion the book chosen for sight reading should ways be the one the class is reading at the time. To ve an extra book for such work is to break the coniuity of attention and interest, and against the plea at an easy book should be chosen for this purpose may set the fact that the book with whose vocabulary the

pils are familiar and in whose plot and characters they

interested is, at least for the moment, the easiest one
them to read.
t seems impossible to say anything about the work
the high school without touching on the vext question
college entrance requirements. Many teachers of mod-

languages say that they can not read in the time al-
ed them the 800 or 1000 pages required by the colleges,
hat, in order to do so, they are forced to sacrifice oral

grammatical work. But this merely shows how little adence they really have in the methods they profess elieve in. Oral work does not take time from reading,

the best possible means of helping the pupil to read ily and easily. Nor does the college expect that 800 s be learned and discust sentence by sentence in the

VIII

DISCUSSION

THE HIGH SCHOOL HYDRA: A REPLY

In the November, 1915, number of EDUCATIONAL REVIEW Helen Babcock Latham, under the caption of The high school hydra, revives the high school fraternity question. She thinks:

1. That in our efforts to suppress fraternities we are unjustly exacting blind obedience from our students.

2. That the control or direction of these fraternities must rest with the parents, -and the Juvenile Court!

In each of these contentions she is mistaken. High school fraternities have been proscribed for the same reason that the sale of opium is prohibited. Experience has shown that high school fraternities are a blight upon the school and upon the individual. Like opium, they have been labeled “poisonous,” but if people will persist in cultivating a craving for them, then they must be outlawed absolutely.

To illustrate, I have a boy who is interested in poultry. He undertook to raise several lots of chicks during August and September, in the face of a divided opinion on the advisability of trying to raise chicks so late in the season. He endeavored to help matters by hatching them under hens in preference to incubators, and he even took pains to purchase from a neighbor some hens that would surely be good mothers. The chicks hatched and got along nicely for a few weeks. Then some of them began to die, showing symptoms of dizziness and partial paralysis. Investigation revealed the cause. Those that suffered were out of a brood that were allowed to run in a field containing a weed known as “deadly night-shade.” As. soon as they were penned up the trouble ceased.

Deadly night-shade in small doses may not be poison

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VIII

DISCUSSION

THE HIGH SCHOOL HYDRA: A REPLY In the November, 1915, number of EDUCATIONAL REEw Helen Babcock Latham, under the caption of The gh school hydra, revives the high school fraternity jestion. She thinks: 1. That in our efforts to suppress fraternities we are justly exacting blind obedience from our students. 2. That the control or direction of these fraternities ist rest with the parents, and the Juvenile Court! In each of these contentions she is mistaken. High cool fraternities have been proscribed for the same reason t the sale of opium is prohibited. Experience has shown t high school fraternities are a blight upon the school 1 upon the individual. Like opium, they have been eled poisonous,” but if people will persist in cultivating raving for them, then they must be outlawed absoly. o illustrate, I have a boy who is interested in poultry. undertook to raise several lots of chicks during August

September, in the face of a divided opinion on the sability of trying to raise chicks so late in the season. endeavored to help matters by hatching them under

in preference to incubators, and he even took pains urchase from a neighbor some hens that would surely ood mothers. The chicks hatched and got along , for a few weeks. Then some of them began to die, ng symptoms of dizziness and partial paralysis. tigation revealed the cause. Those that suffered out of a brood that were allowed to run in a field ining a weed known as deadly night-shade.As as they were penned up the trouble ceased. dly night-shade in small doses may not be poison

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IX

REVIEWS A short history of English. Henry CECIL WYLD, University of Liverpool, London. John Murray. 1914. 240 p.

Readers of Professor Wyld's Historical study of the mother tongue (1906) and other of his publications will be prepared to welcome this most recent addition to the equipment of the teacher and student of the English language. A short history of English is not intended for the wide general public, but for those students who have some knowledge of English in its historical aspects, that is, who have read texts of the earlier periods, and who wish to secure a scientific and moderately thoro understanding of the language from the point of view of its grammatical development. Both what the book does and what it refrains from doing are significant. Professor Wyld excludes altogether the discussion of vocabulary, his reason for doing so being that this subject has been treated "at great length, and very competently, in many other books." To this he might have added that vocabulary, by its nature, is the side of language which the undisciplined student can most readily understand. Words come into languages, or modify their meanings, in ways which are fairly obvious and intelligible to anyone who is observant of social innovations and customs. On the other hand, Professor Wyld has omitted all formal discussion of what is perhaps the most difficult division of the history of the language, that is, syntax. But here again his judgment was sound. Syntax is the least tractable of all the aspects of language from the point of view of systematization and organization. A short history of English could not have treated this subject adequately, and a brief sketch for the beginner would have served no useful purpose. By the exclusion of vocabulary and syntax, Professor Wyld has been able to

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IX

REVIEWS short history of English. Henry Cecil WYLD, University of Liverpool

, London. John Murray. 1914. 240 p. Readers of Professor Wyld's Historical study of the ther tongue (1906) and other of his publications will be epared to welcome this most recent addition to the equipent of the teacher and student of the English language. short history of English is not intended for the wide neral public, but for those students who have some wledge of English in its historical aspects, that is, o have read texts of the earlier periods, and who wish to ure a scientific and moderately thoro understanding of

language from the point of view of its grammatical elopment. Both what the book does and what it ains from doing are significant. Professor Wyld exles altogether the discussion of vocabulary, his reason doing so being that this subject has been treated "at it length, and very competently, in many other books.” this he might have added that vocabulary, by its nature, le side of language which the undisciplined student can t readily understand. Words come into languages, hodify their meanings, in ways which are fairly obvious

intelligible to anyone who is observant of social initions and customs. On the other hand, Professor i has omitted all formal discussion of what is perhaps most difficult division of the history of the language, is, syntax. But here again his judgment was sound. ax is the least tractable of all the aspects of language

the point of view of systematization and organization. ort history of English could not have treated this subidequately, and a brief sketch for the beginner would

served no useful purpose. By the exclusion of vulary and syntax, Professor Wyld has been able to

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