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tions of the common people, that he believed that the Hood of Deucalion or any other catastrophe of nature came in punishment of sin. A half dozen passages from the satires and epistles might be cited to prove that he did not. But nevertheless he was ready and willing to use these deepooted superstitions of the common people for purposes of state. He could say with calm face that the sins of civil var had been more than enough to justify thunder storms nd the Tiber's inundation,--and he could add with the inction of a Stoic: “Providence has sent Augustus to put n end to civil discord; if you would avoid further punishient, follow him.” He had lost faith in democracy, in the ability of the mob

govern itself--the many-headed monster that was ever apricious in its opinions, whose judgments were never ased on discriminating intelligence. He speaks with conmpt of the uninitiated throng, the malignant mob that

dazed and stupefied by externals, by pomp and circumance. But we must not carelessly conclude that this atribe is directed against the poor or against those who ; rare good judgment have chosen the simple life. No

to endure. Those six odes have in them much of war's alarum and of the thundering tread of victorious legions; but in the midst of the din, in the fourth ode, Horace tries to present the crowning virtue of empire, the worship of the muses. How subtly without saying a word to discredit the military and political achievements of Augustus, Horace suggests that these are but means to a higher end. It is so easy to forget that the machinery of government is not an end in itself. The test of a civilization or of a form of government is its power to produce the things of the spirit. Horace does not bluntly say this, but he hints that when Augustus has made provision for his veteran legions he will devote himself to poetry and philosophy, and become first citizen in a world of refinement and beauty, a world of faerie remote from brute force, a land in which Horace has lived from earliest childhood, a land where one must use a new set of standards in estimating success. It is a world in which some slight inspiration of the Grecian muse can outweigh all the harvests of Sicily and the cattle grazing on a hundred hills. It is a world in which the charm of woodland glades and the subtle whisperings of the spirit are more important than success in business, political preferment, or victories in the field of war. It is the world of Orpheus and Amphion where cities are built without sound of hammer, where swift streams and stately forest trees arrange themselves in forms of wondrous beauty to imagination's magic harp.

CHARLES NEWTON SMILEY GRINNELL COLLEGE

le has presented the charms of the simple life more allurgly than Horace, and no one has heralded with greater thusiasm the heroic characters who were the product of ra paupertas. Augusta paupertas is to be the mother the men who are to defend the new Empire of Augustus. jey are to have the physical courage to conquer the Mede, d the moral courage to conquer themselves and rule the rld with equity and justice. How splendid is the aracter that Horace presents as the type of the ideal man: “The man who is just and firm of purpose, whom ther the wild passions of the mob, nor the threatening k of a tyrant can shake from his fixt resolve, nor yet

mighty hand of high-thundering Jove; if the heavens
uld break and fall, the ruins would strike him undis-
ved.This is the character that Horace presents
he six odes at the beginning of the third book, the type
t will make the Roman state enduring and deserving

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WHAT IS ENGLISH?

Every one knows what algebra is, or Latin, or botany. But what is English? In the colleges the answer is fairly clear: required composition for freshmen and elective literary courses for higher classes. Yet there is such variety of theory and practise that a proper exposition would have to be entitled The maelstrom. One professor devotes his life to sophomore themes, only to be assured by a venerable colleague that his work is in vain. Another, who has taught literature half a century, declares that literature ought not to be, and never can be, taught. One of our greatest universities requires no freshman English, but offers to sophomores instruction “aiming at fluency in focussing daily impressions." Whether literature is a subject to be attacked by analysis, or is something that reluctant youth should be coaxed into loving; whether the purpose of composition should be literary grace or mechanical accuracy—these questions have been everywhere debated with religious fervor.

Such antagonisms of opinion within the college are of little moment to the world: the wisdom of professors can be trusted in their own courses. But they guide the schools, and if wrong notions cause mismanagement and waste of energy there, then every tax-payer and parent is concerned. Every teacher whose efforts have been misdirected becomes a dragon civilization. More time is devoted to English than to any other subject; it is conceded to be more directly useful than any other; more fault is found with poor teaching of it; in no other department do teachers so agonize and study methods and pray for guidance, and so often despair. What is English?

If you ask a high school boy, he will say, “Oh, we read

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WHAT IS ENGLISH? Every one knows what algebra is, or Latin, or botany. But what is English? In the colleges the answer is fairly lear: required composition for freshmen and elective iterary courses for higher classes. Yet there is such ariety of theory and practise that a proper exposition vould have to be entitled The maelstrom. One professor levotes his life to sophomore themes, only to be assured y a venerable colleague that his work is in vain. Another, ho has taught literature half a century, declares that terature ought not to be, and never can be, taught. ne of our greatest universities requires no freshman nglish, but offers to sophomores instruction "aiming - fluency in focussing daily impressions." Whether Cerature is a subject to be attacked by analysis, or is mething that reluctant youth should be coaxed into ving; whether the purpose of composition should be erary grace or mechanical accuracy-these questions ve been everywhere debated with religious fervor. Such antagonisms of opinion within the college are of tle moment to the world: the wisdom of professors can trusted in their own courses. But they guide the schools, d if wrong notions cause mismanagement and waste energy there, then every tax-payer and parent is con

Julius Caesar and Vision of Sir Launfal, and a lot of books like that." Press him further, and he will tell you, “We write themes sometimes.”' This incomplete reply is substantially the truth. Reading a lot of books and writing a few themes is secondary English. The wisest high school teacher I happen to know, who is the author of the most sensible composition book I know, has declared in print that only two-fifths of the total English time should be allotted to grammar, spelling, and rhetoric.

Put your query to a file of the N. E. A. T. E. leaflets. The cornucopia of replies is as follows: The Use of Modern Literature, the training of young people to self-discovery and self-expression, Dramatization and the Festival, Oral Composition, The Teaching of Literature, let us court the candid opinion of the beef-eating athlete, a pleasure and a duty to employ his noble mother-tongue nobly, 48% of the schools that send replies give less than onethird of the English time to composition, The Old Testament in Schools, we ought to turn over to you children that have some power of finding joy in allusion, it is easy to secure the children's interest in the stories of Shakespeare's plays. This sheaf of titles and significant expressions was gleaned absolutely by chance. I took a jumbled lot of leaflets, began at the bottom, and took the heading or a quotation from each one, until the list was long enough to be tiresome. Dates of publication range from March, 1907, to April, 1914.

A very large part of the discussion in conventions for the last fifteen years has centered about the college entrance list of required reading. Shall we have two lists? Shall we have any lists? Shall we be shackled? We want plenty of optionals!—such questions and slogans have mightily stirred the secondary world.

What is English according to the admission requirements of colleges? Two Princeton catalogues furnish an interesting contrast. In 1909 we read: “The examination will be based upon the books prescribed by the uniform entrance requirements in English. Questions as to the

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ned. Every teacher whose efforts have been misdirected comes a dragon civilization. More time is devoted English than to any other subject; it is conceded to be re directly useful than any other; more fault is found h poor teaching of it; in no other department do teachers agonize and study methods and pray for guidance,

so often despair. What is English? f you ask a high school boy, he will say, Oh, we read

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subject matter, structure, and style of these books will be asked.” In 1913: “The purpose of the examination is to test the candidate's knowledge and appreciation of certain masterpieces of English literature and his proficiency in English composition.” This current toward composition has been so strong during the last decade that teachers who thought they were on the high seas of literature have been continually finding themselves stranded on the shoals of spelling. In the Yale catalogue for 1912 English was placed after Latin, French, and German, and began: “The aim is to foster the habit of intelligent reading." In 1914 English was put first in order, and began: “Preparation in English has two main objects: (1) command of correct and clear English, spoken and written.”

It appears that we are actually to know before many years what English is. From all quarters we hear the same cry: “Our freshmen can't spell, can't punctuate." Everywhere it is necessary to form freshman spelling classes or Freshman o English for those who are deficient. No college now passes a paper, no matter what powers of appreciation or fluency it may exhibit, if the candidate is ignorant of commas or doubled consonants or past participles.

Three years ago the University of Wisconsin printed a most remarkable bulletin, Requirements for Admission to the Freshman English Course. It is essentially a guide for perplexed teachers, a definition, in the form of 87 rules, of what English is in Madison. Nothing is said about appreciation of literature, nor about themes based on books read. We are told only that: “One of the laws of the University makes a certain amount of proficiency in writing English prerequisite for admission to the freshman English

Whether or not students possess the necessary ability is determined by a preliminary test consisting of the composition of a few short essays on familiar and simple subjects."

The reader is four times warned that the rules are in no sense a curriculum, are not to be learned; that they

course.

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subject matter, structure, and style of these books will be asked.” In 1913: "The purpose of the examination is to test the candidate's knowledge and appreciation of certain masterpieces of English literature and his proficiency in English composition." This current toward composition has been so strong during the last decade that teachers who thought they were on the high seas of literature have been continually finding themselves stranded on the shoals of spelling. In the Yale catalogue for 1912 English was placed after Latin, French, and German, and began: "The aim is to foster the habit of intelligent reading. In 1914 English was put first in order, and began : "Preparation in English has two main objects: (1) command of correct and clear English, spoken and written."

It appears that we are actually to know before many years what English is. From all quarters we hear the same cry: "Our freshmen can't spell, can't punctuate.” Everywhere it is necessary to form freshman spelling classes or Freshman o English for those who are deficient. No college now passes a paper, no matter what powers of

ippreciation or fluency it may exhibit, if the candidate
s ignorant of commas or doubled consonants or past par-
iciples.

Three years ago the University of Wisconsin printed a
cost remarkable bulletin, Requirements for Admission

the Freshman English Course. It is essentially a guide or perplexed teachers, a definition, in the form of 87 rules, f what English is in Madison. Nothing is said about ppreciation of literature, nor about themes based on books ad. We are told only that: One of the laws of the niversity makes a certain amount of proficiency in writing zglish prerequisite for admission to the freshman English urse, Whether or not students possess the necessary ility is determined by a preliminary test consisting of e composition of a few short essays on familiar and simple ojects.The reader is four times warned that the rules are in sense a curriculum, are not to be learned; that they

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