Elements of Chemistry: Theoretical and Practical, Volume 3

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Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1867
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Determination of Saline Constituents
12
General Principles of Ultimate Analysis
13
Analysis 0a Solid free from Nitrogen
14
Analysis of a Liquid free from Nitrogen
18
Analysis of a Compound containing Nitrogen
20
Method of Varrentrapp and Will
21
Method of Dumas
23
Method of Relative Volumes
24
Determination of Sulphur and of Phosphorus
25
Determination of Chlorine Bromine and Iodine
26
X
27
Determination of the Equivalents of Organic Compounds ib 1053 Distinction between Combining Proportion and Molecular Weight
28
Vapour Densityits Theoretical Value
29
Distinction between Atomic Weight and Molecular Weight
31
General Principles of Classification
33
Homologous SeriesIllustration from the Alcohols
34
PABAGftAPH P1GI
42
Arguments for doubling the Atomic Weight of Oxygen
48
rmauri
54
Theory of Polybasic Elements
56
Mode of determining the Equivalency of an Element
64
IC69 Influence of Position of the Atoms in a Compound upon
70
nutuii ioi
73
Substitution of Chlorine and its Analogues for Hydrogen
78
Inverse Substitutions
84
Action of Bases on SugarMetacetone
94
Quantitative Estimation of Sugar
102
Refining of Sugar
109
ro92 Starch Arrowroot TapiocaSago 1I5 1093 Properties of Starch
117
Preparation of Starch British Gum
119
Glycogen
122
Diastase ib 1097 Theory of the Action of Ferments I23 1098 Preparation of Malt
126
Dextrin
128
Inulin ib 1101 GumArabinBassorinMucilage
129
Cellulin and Woody Fibre
133
CellulinVegetable Parchment
134
PyroxylinGuncottonCollodion
139
Tunicin 4
140
Lignin or Woody Fibreits Varieties
141
General Remarks on the Amylaceous Group
143
nil Coal and other Combustible MineralsPeat Brown Coal Table of Analyses of Coal
146
IV On Fermentation
151
a Alcoholic Fermentation
152
Nature and Properties of Yeast ib 1115 Progress of Fermentation
154
b Fermentation of Bread 1116 Composition of Bread Stuffs
161
Gluten
163
Preparation of BreadNew and Stale Bread
164
c Lactic Fermentation
168
d Viscous Fermentation
169
Groups isologous with the Monobasic Alcohols and their Deri
170
TABLE OF CONTENT8
172
tO
178
Characters of the Alcohols of the Group GHj+j0 11S 1125 Wood Spirit or Methylic Alcohol
180
Ordinary Alcohol or Spirit of Wine
183
Wines and Fermented Liquors
186
Tritylic or Propylic Alcohol
189
Tetrylic or Butylic Alcohol
190
Amylic Alcohol or Fousel Oil ib 1131 Hexylic or Caproic AlcoholOEnanthylic Alcohol
192
Octylie or Caprylie Alcohol
193
II Action of the Acids upon the Alcohols
194
The Vinic Acids
195
Ethylsulphuric or Sulphovinic Acid
196
Isethionic Parethionic and Althionic Acids
198
Ethionic Anhydride or Sulphate of CarbyleEthionic Acid Ethionates
199
Other Vinic Acids Ethylcarbonic Carbosulphethylic Xanthic Ethyloxalic Ethylsulphurous and Ethylphos phoric Acids
200
The Ethers 1139 1 Simple Ethers 2 Mixed Ethers 3 Compound Ethers
202
General Properties of the Ethers
207
a Ordinary Ethylic or Vinic Ether
208
Theory of Etherification
212
Table of Ethylic Ethers
217
Hydrochloric Ether or Ethyl Chloride
218
Hydrobromic Ether or Ethyl Bromide ib 1146 Hydriodic Ether or Ethyl Iodide
219
Sulphides of EthylMercaptan
220
Selenides and Tellurides of Ethyl
222
Hydrocyanic EtherNitrilesCyanethine 223
223
c Ethylic Ethers of the Oxyacids 1150 Ethyl SulphateHeavy Oil of WineEtherolEtherin
224
Nitric Ether
225
Nitrous Ether ib 1153 Perchloric Ether
226
Silicic Ethers ib 1155 Boracic Ethers
227
Formic Ether
228
Butyric Ether
229
Oxalic Oxamic and Methylethyloxalic Ethers ib 1161 Carbonic EtherUrethane
231
Cyanic Etherother Cyanic EtheraUreas
232
Cyanuric EtherAllophanic Ethr
233
Methylic Ether or Methyl Oxide
234
Methylsulphuric Ether
235
Methylsalicylic Ether or Oil of Wintergreen
236
IV Action of Chlorine on the Ethers and Alcohols
238
Dichlorinated and Perchlorinated Ethylic Ether ib 1175 Action of Chlorine on the Compound Ethers
239
Chloral or Trichloraldehyd
242
Perchloraldehyd
243
Bromal 244
244
b Chlorinated Derivatives of other Alcohols 1180 ChloroformIodoformBromoform
246
Metallic Derivatives of the Alcohols
249
Theory of their Composition
252
ZincEthyl
253
SodiumEthyl and ZincEthyl
255
6 Compounds of Mercury with Alcohol Radicles ib 1187 Mercuric Dimethyl Mercuric Methide
256
Mercuric Diethyl Mercuric Ethide
257
Borotriethyl Boric Ethide
258
c Compounds of Arsenic with the Alcohol Radicles ib 1192 Kakodyl
259
Compounds of the Kakodyl Series
261
Compounds of Arseniomethyl
263
12C2 VII Hydrocarbons derived from
270
TABLE OF CONTENTS
271
b Homologues of Marsh Gas eH2ll + 2
276
B Diatomic Alcohols
284
Condensed Glycols
291
a Composition and Properties of the principal Oils and Fats
298
The Solid Fats1 Cocoanut Oil 2 Palm Oil 3 Butter 4 Lard 5 Suet
300
SpermacetiCetyleneEthal
302
Bees WaxChinese WaxCeroleinCerotic AcidMyricin MelissinMelissic Acid
305
b Proximate Constituents of the Fats and Oils 1227 Stearin
306
Palmitin
307
OleinAdipocire
308
c Action of Bases upon Fats
309
Manufacture of Soap
310
d Manufacture of Fatty Acids for Candles 1234 Saponification by Lime
312
Acidification of Fats by Sulphuric Acid 313
313
Decomposition of Fats by superheated Steam
315
NitroglycerinCompound Acids containing Glycerin Sulphoglyceric and Phosphoglyceric Acids 319
319
GlyceridesSynthetic Formation of Fats
320
Compounds of Glycerin with Mineral and Vegetable Acids analogous to Fat3
324
Acrolein or Acrylic Aldehyd
326
Other Polyatomic Alcohols 1243 Erythrite
328
Mannite
329
MannidesCompounds of Mannite with Acids
332
Action of Polybasic Acids on Sugars
333
Saccharides and Glucosides
334
CHAPTER V
336
Acetic Aldehyd
339
Preparation of Acetic Acid Radicles of the Acids eHu tnote
343
riusuni PACK
346
Monobasic and Polybasic Acids 354
354
Simple and Compound or Colligated AcidsSulpho Acids
360
Oxychlorides of the Monobasic Acids
366
WO 07
367
Table of Derivatives of Monobasic Acids
372
a Acids belonging to the Stearic or Acetic Series eHjnOj
382
Acetic Anhydride
388
Acetosulphuric Acid eSG
395
b Acids of the Oleic Series fi H
409
Malonic Acid
415
Sebacic Acid
421
Lactic AcidLactide
427
Metameric Modifications of Malic Acid
433
The Tartrates
441
Citrates
448
Mecbnic AcidMeconates
452
Varieties of Tannic Acid
453
Gallotannic AcidWriting Ink
454
Mimotannic AcidCatecliin
456
Gallic Acid
457
x334 Pyrogallic AcidPyrogallin
458
335 Ellagic AcidParellagic Acid
460
33 7 Quinic AcidQuinates
461
QuinoneHydroquinonePercliloroquinone ib 1338 Sorbic and Parasorbic Acids
463
CHAPTER VI
465
The Nitriles
466
The Amidated Acids
468
Hydramides
470
A Monamides
472
B Diamides
479
Triamides
481
PhosphoridesArsidesStibides
482
a Amides of the Monobasic Acids 1348 AcetamideEthylacetamideTrichloracetamide
483
PropionamideButyramideValeramide
484
BenzamideHydrargobenzamide 16
485
OxamideDiethyloxamideOxanilide ib 1354 SuccinamideDisuccinamideTrisuccinamide
487
d Amidated Acids
488
Oxamic Acid ib II The Organic Bases 1357 General Properties of the Organic Bases
489
Bases Homologous with Aniline
511
i Pyridine Bases eH_sN
512
Pyridine and its HomologuesPlatinum Derivatives
513
PicolineParapicoline
514
c Quinoline Series eH_nN
515
Bases obtained by the Action of Ammonia upon the Derivatives of the Alcohol
516
General Methods of obtaining the Alcohol Bases 510
521
Hofmanns Classification of Organic Bases
523
Methylia Trimethylia Hydrated Tetramethylium Oxide
525
Ethylia or Ethylamine and its Derivatives S27 1378 Bases derived from other Alcohols
529
OctyliaTricetylia
530
Alcohol Bases derived from Phosphuretted Hydrogen ib 1381 Phosphotriethylia Triethylphosphine and its Derivatives
531
Polyatomic Bases
533
Diethylenia Acetylia Hydrated Diethylenium Oxide
534
Ethylenia Fonnylia and their Derivatives
536
Bases produced by the Action of Ammonia on certain Aldehyds 1386 FurfurolFurfuramideFurfuriw
537
Benzoline or AmarinePyrobenzoline
538
Conylia and its DerivativesHemlock ib 1389 SparteiaScoparinBroom
540
Nicotylia and its DerivativesTobacco ib 1391 Preparation of SnufF
542
Bases which contain Qvygen 1392 a Alkaloids of the Cinchonas
544
Cinchonia 2 Cinchonidine 3 Cinchonicine
545
Isolation of the Components of Opium 351
551
Strychnia and its Derivatives
561
Chemical Characters of Coffee and Tea
567
CHAPTER VII
575
Artificial Modifications of Oil of TurpentineIsoterebenthene
581
Oil of CarawayCarvene Carvol
587
fiiiGura riGi Peppermint MentheneEssence of Cedar Wood Cedrene Attar of Roses
590
B Oxidized Essences
591
a CamphorsLaurel CamphorCampholic Acid ib 1426 Camphoric Acid and its Modifications
593
b Indifferent Essences which contain OxygenOils of Laven der of Wormwood c 594
594
c Oils Analogous to the Aldehyds ib 1430 1 Benzoic SeriesOil of Bitter Almonds
595
AmygdalinAmygdalic AcidSynaptase 597
596
Essence of Bitter AlmondsBenzoyl hydrideNitro BenzoylChlorobenzoyl hydride
599
Benzoyl ChlorideBenzoyl chlorohydrideBromide Iodide Sulphide and Cyanide of Benzoyl
600
Formobenzoylic AcidBenzoylhydride BenzoateCy anobenzoylhydride BenzimideHydride of Ben zoylhydrocyanate
602
x435 Benzoic AcidBenzoic AnhydrideSulphobenzoic Ni trobenzoic and Chlorobenzoic AcidsGum Benzoin Benzoates
605
Amidobenzoic Benzamic Acid
607
Action of Ammonia on Oil of Bitter AlmondsHydro benzamideDibenzoylimide BenzhydramideBen zoylic AzotideAzobenzoyl
609
Benzoic Alcohol and Ethers
610
BenzoineBenzilic or Stilbylic Acid
613
BenzylStilbyl Chloride
614
BenzoinamideBenzoinam
615
Hippuric AcidHippurates ib 1443 Benzoglycolic Acid
617
Cuminic Series Essence 0Cumin
618
Cuminic Acid
619
Cuminic Alcohol ib 1447 CumylPotassic Cumylide ib 1448 Cumyl Chloride
620
449 3 Cinnamic SeriesEssence of Cinnamon ib 1450 Cinnamic Acid
621
Styrone Cinnamic Alcohol
623
StoraxStyrolMetastyrol ib 453 Balsam of PeruStyracinBalsam of Tolu
624
PARAGRAPH PAGE
627
Populin
635
Allylic Series Allyl
641
ThiosinnamineSinnamine
647
Balsams
653
Resin of Jalap
659
r493 PhloridzinPhloretinPhlorizein
661
Yellow Dyes1 Quercitron2 and 3 Old and Young Fustic
669
I57 3 BrazilwoodCamwood 675
675
Indigo Blue
681
IsatinIsatic Acid
687
Litmus
692
Assay of Lichens for Colouring Matters ib 1527 Erythrio AcidPicroerythrin
693
Evernic and Evernesic Acids
694
OrcinOrceinBetaorcin
695
Colouring Matters not of Vegetable OriginPigments
697
Dyeing and Calico PrintingMordants
699
DyeingProcess for Turkey Red
700
Calico PrintingPattern BleachingEesist PastesSteam Colour Printing
702
Stockholm Tar
703
ParaffinParaffin Oils
704
Pyrene and Chrysene
706
Pyroxanthin ib 1540 Eupion ib 1541 Krcasote
707
Kapnomor Picamar Cedriret c
709
543 b Products of the Distillation of Peat ib J544 c Products of the Distillation of Pit Coal
711
Components of Coal Tar
717
Homologous Hydrocarbons from Coal Tar 6nH_
719
Phenic SeriesBenzol
720
Homologues of Benzol Toluol Xylol Cumol Cymol
721
Phenose Benzol SugarChlorobenzol Bromobenzol Sulphoacids of Benzol
722
NitrobenzolDinitrobenzol
723
Productsof the Reduction of NitrobenzolAzoxibenzide AzobenzolBenzidineDiphenine
725
Phenic or Carbolic AcidPhenyl HydrateAurine 326
727
Ethers of Phenic AcidPhenetol Phenamylol
728
l55 Oxyphenic Acid or Pyrocatechin
731
Anthracene Paranaphthalin 739
739
574 Cyanide of SilverPotassic ArgentoCyanide
747
Potassic Ferrocyanide Prussiate of Potash
753
J586 Cobalticyanides MeoCv
760
Platinocyanides MaPtCy4 ib 1589 Platinicyanides
763
Iridicyanides M3ItCyDouble Cyanides
766
MeUonMellonidesMj e Nu
767
MelamMelamineAmmelineAmmelid
768
Cyanuric Acid
769
Isomerides of Cyanuric AcidCyanilic Acid
771
Fulminuric Acid
774
Compounds of Ammonia with Cyanic Acid 775
775
Bases of Animal Origin
776
1 UreaNatural and Artificial Sources ib 1602 Compounds of Urea with Salts and with Metallic Oxides
780
Liebigs Method of estimating Urea and Chlorides in Urine
781
Compound Ureas 783
783
Ureides
784
Biuret
785
Kreatine 77
787
Sarkosine ib 1610 Methyluramine 790
790
GuanineGuanidine
791
Xanthine
792
Hypoxanthine
793
Bases Homologous with Glycocine Hjh+jN 794
794
j6j5 GlycocineGlycolic Acid 795
796
Alanine
797
LeucineLeucic Acid
799
Tyrosine
800
Uric Acid and its Derivatives 1619 Uric Acid
801
Urates
802
Products of the Decomposition of Uric Acid
803
Alloxan
808
Alloxanic AcidDifluanLeucoturic Acid
810
j624 Mesoxalic Acid
811
Oxaluric Acid
812
Alloxan tin ib 1628 Dialuric Acid
813
Hydurilic Acid
814
Violuric Acid
815
Dilituric AcidViolantin ib 1632 Dibromobarbituric Acid Bromalloxan
816
Barbituric Acid 817
817
Tribromacetylurea 8j8 1635 Review of Derivatives of Barbituric Acid ib 1636 Uramil or Dialuramide
819
Thionuric Acid ib 1638 Murexid Purpurate of Ammonia
820
Pseudo Uric Acid
821
AllantoinAllanturic Lantanuric Acid
822
Hydantoin
823
GlycolurilGlycoluric Hydantoic Acid
824
Kynurenic Acid
825
Products of the Oxidation of the Albuminoid and Gelatige nous Groups
826
I Albuminoid Group
827
Properties and Composition of the Albuminoid Compounds
828
Proteinits Derivatives 851
832
Effect of Bases on Albumin
835
Sources of AlbuminParalbumin
837
Globulin
838
Vitellin ib 1655 Fibrin
839
Varieties of Fibrin _
840
Casein
841
Action of Bases and Salts on Casein
843
Legumin
844
II Gektigenous Substances
845
GelatinOssein
846
Chondrin
847
PiKAGUAfH PAGB
849
Archil and Cudbear 691
855
BonesShells c
857
Muscular TissueJuice of Flesh 16
863
Composition of the Blood
869
The Gastric Juice
879
Cholic AcidCholates
885
PlllGUn PAGI
889
Urinary Sediments and Calculi
897
CHAPTER XIII
904
Varieties of Soil
912
Varieties of Manures
919
Process of Digestion
925
Proportion of Carbonic Anhydride exhaled during Respiration
931
Animal Heat
937
Secretion
946
PABAGBAPH PAGI
947
Atomic Volume of Solids 1 Simple Bodies
956
Discussion of Kopps Conclusions
970
APPENDIX
981
Drinkwaters Table of the Quantity of Absolute Alcohol in Dilute
988
Salicylic Series Oil of Spiraa ib 1455 Chlorosalicyl Hydride 626
998
vatives 17
1006
Collateral SeriesTable of the Derivatives of Alcohol
1059

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